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Basics of the Muslim Cosmology

In the Name of ALLAH, the Beneficent, the Merciful. Author :Sajid Mahmood Ansari Introduction: All praise is due to ALLAH and His blessi...

Tuesday, January 19, 2021

WHAT TO DO FOR THE DECEASED?

 

WHAT TO DO FOR THE DECEASED?
1. Respecting the corpse.
2. Washing the whole body like a full bath.
3. Wrapping in white coffin.
4. Offering funeral prayers.
5. Burying in a grave.
6. Making Dua after burial beside the grave.
8. Remembering him in good words.
9. Condolence.
10. Charity on behalf of the deceased.
11. Doing acts of optional worship for him/her like reciting Qur'an.
12. Performing the mandatory worships on his/her behalf that he missed like fasting, performing Hajj and paying due Zakat.
13. Paying his/her debit.
14. Respecting his/her kinship.
15. Caring for his widow and orphans.

Performing acts of worship on behalf of the deceased is not only lawful but preferable in Hanbali Madhab. This ruling has been derived from a bunch of authentic Hadiths, which are literally Mutawatir (mass transmitted).

 

Narrated Ibn Abbas (peace and blessings be upon them):



Sa'd bin 'Ubada Al-Ansari (May Allah be pleased with him) sought the verdict of Allah's Messenger () regarding a vow made by his mother who had died before fulfilling it. Allah's Messenger () said, "Fulfill it on her behalf." Some people said, "If the number of camels reaches twenty, then their owner has to pay four sheep as Zakat; and if their owner gives them as a gift or sells them in order to escape the payment of Zakat cunningly before the completion of a year, then he is not to pay anything, and if he slaughters them and then dies, then no Zakat is to be taken from his property."



حَدَّثَنَا قُتَيْبَةُ بْنُ سَعِيدٍ، حَدَّثَنَا لَيْثٌ، عَنِ ابْنِ شِهَابٍ، عَنْ عُبَيْدِ اللَّهِ بْنِ عَبْدِ اللَّهِ بْنِ عُتْبَةَ، عَنِ ابْنِ عَبَّاسٍ، أَنَّهُ قَالَ اسْتَفْتَى سَعْدُ بْنُ عُبَادَةَ الأَنْصَارِيُّ رَسُولَ اللَّهِ صلى الله عليه وسلم فِي نَذْرٍ كَانَ عَلَى أُمِّهِ، تُوُفِّيَتْ قَبْلَ أَنْ تَقْضِيَهُ، فَقَالَ رَسُولُ اللَّهِ صلى الله عليه وسلم ‏ "‏ اقْضِهِ عَنْهَا ‏"‏‏.‏ وَقَالَ بَعْضُ النَّاسِ إِذَا بَلَغَتِ الإِبِلُ عِشْرِينَ، فَفِيهَا أَرْبَعُ شِيَاهٍ، فَإِنْ وَهَبَهَا قَبْلَ الْحَوْلِ أَوْ بَاعَهَا، فِرَارًا وَاحْتِيَالاً لإِسْقَاطِ الزَّكَاةِ، فَلاَ شَىْءَ عَلَيْهِ، وَكَذَلِكَ إِنْ أَتْلَفَهَا فَمَاتَ، فَلاَ شَىْءَ فِي مَالِهِ‏.‏

Reference : Sahih al-Bukhari 6959

 

Ayesha (May Allah be pleased with her)

A man said to the Prophet, "My mother died suddenly, and I think that if she could speak, she would have given in charity. May I give in charity on her behalf?" He said, "Yes! Give in charity on her behalf."



حَدَّثَنَا إِسْمَاعِيلُ، قَالَ حَدَّثَنِي مَالِكٌ، عَنْ هِشَامٍ، عَنْ أَبِيهِ، عَنْ عَائِشَةَ، رضى الله عنها أَنَّ رَجُلاً، قَالَ لِلنَّبِيِّ صلى الله عليه وسلم إِنَّ أُمِّي افْتُلِتَتْ نَفْسَهَا، وَأُرَاهَا لَوْ تَكَلَّمَتْ تَصَدَّقَتْ، أَفَأَتَصَدَّقُ عَنْهَا قَالَ ‏ "‏ نَعَمْ، تَصَدَّقْ عَنْهَا ‏"‏‏.‏

Reference : Sahih al-Bukhari 2760

 

Ayesha (May Allah be pleased with her)

 

A man said to Allah's Messenger () , "My mother died, will it benefit her if I give in charity on her behalf?" The Prophet () replied in the affirmative. The man said, "I have a garden and I make you a witness that I give it in charity on her behalf."



حَدَّثَنَا مُحَمَّدُ بْنُ عَبْدِ الرَّحِيمِ، أَخْبَرَنَا رَوْحُ بْنُ عُبَادَةَ، حَدَّثَنَا زَكَرِيَّاءُ بْنُ إِسْحَاقَ، قَالَ حَدَّثَنِي عَمْرُو بْنُ دِينَارٍ، عَنْ عِكْرِمَةَ، عَنِ ابْنِ عَبَّاسٍ ـ رضى الله عنهما أَنَّ رَجُلاً، قَالَ لِرَسُولِ اللَّهِ صلى الله عليه وسلم إِنَّ أُمَّهُ تُوُفِّيَتْ أَيَنْفَعُهَا إِنْ تَصَدَّقْتُ عَنْهَا قَالَ ‏ "‏ نَعَمْ ‏"‏‏.‏ قَالَ فَإِنَّ لِي مِخْرَافًا وَأُشْهِدُكَ أَنِّي قَدْ تَصَدَّقْتُ عَنْهَا‏.‏

Reference : Sahih al-Bukhari 2770

 

It was narrated from Abu Hurairah that a man said to the Prophet:

"My father died and left behind wealth, but he did not leave a will. Will it expiate for him if I give charity on his behalf?"

أَخْبَرَنَا عَلِيُّ بْنُ حُجْرٍ، قَالَ أَنْبَأَنَا إِسْمَاعِيلُ، عَنِ الْعَلاَءِ، عَنْ أَبِيهِ، عَنْ أَبِي هُرَيْرَةَ، أَنَّ رَجُلاً، قَالَ لِلنَّبِيِّ صلى الله عليه وسلم إِنَّ أَبِي مَاتَ وَتَرَكَ مَالاً وَلَمْ يُوصِ فَهَلْ يُكَفِّرُ عَنْهُ أَنْ أَتَصَدَّقَ عَنْهُ قَالَ ‏ "‏ نَعَمْ ‏"‏‏.‏

Grade: Sahih (Darussalam)

Reference : Sunan an-Nasa'i 3652

 

Narrated Ibn `Abbas (peace and blessings be upon them):



That the mother of Sa`d bin Ubada the brother of Bani Saida died in Sa`d's absence, so he came to the Prophet saying, "O Allah's Messenger ()! My mother died in my absence, will it benefit her if I give in charity on her behalf?" The Prophet () said, "Yes." Sa`d said, "I take you as my witness that I give my garden Al-Makhraf in charity on her behalf."



حَدَّثَنَا إِبْرَاهِيمُ بْنُ مُوسَى، أَخْبَرَنَا هِشَامُ بْنُ يُوسُفَ، أَنَّ ابْنَ جُرَيْجٍ، أَخْبَرَهُمْ قَالَ أَخْبَرَنِي يَعْلَى، أَنَّهُ سَمِعَ عِكْرِمَةَ، مَوْلَى ابْنِ عَبَّاسٍ يَقُولُ أَنْبَأَنَا ابْنُ عَبَّاسٍ، أَنَّ سَعْدَ بْنَ عُبَادَةَ ـ رضى الله عنهم ـ أَخَا بَنِي سَاعِدَةَ تُوُفِّيَتْ أُمُّهُ وَهْوَ غَائِبٌ، فَأَتَى النَّبِيَّ صلى الله عليه وسلم فَقَالَ يَا رَسُولَ اللَّهِ إِنَّ أُمِّي تُوُفِّيَتْ وَأَنَا غَائِبٌ عَنْهَا، فَهَلْ يَنْفَعُهَا شَىْءٌ إِنْ تَصَدَّقْتُ بِهِ عَنْهَا قَالَ ‏ "‏ نَعَمْ ‏"‏‏.‏ قَالَ فَإِنِّي أُشْهِدُكَ أَنَّ حَائِطِي الْمِخْرَافَ صَدَقَةٌ عَلَيْهَا‏.‏

Reference : Sahih al-Bukhari 2762

 

 

Abdullah bin Buraidah (May Allah be pleased with him)  narrated from his father:

"I was sitting with the Prophet when a woman came to him and said: 'O Messenger of Allah! I gave a slave girl to my mother in charity and she died.' He said: 'Your reward is already established, and your right to inherit her has returned it (that Sadaqah) to you.' She said: 'O Messenger of Allah! There was a month of fasting due on her, shall I perform the fast for her?' He said: 'Fast on her behalf.' She said: 'O Messenger of Allah! She never performed Hajj, shall I perform Hajj for her?' He said: 'Yes, perform Hajj on her behalf.'"

حَدَّثَنَا عَلِيُّ بْنُ حُجْرٍ، حَدَّثَنَا عَلِيُّ بْنُ مُسْهِرٍ، عَنْ عَبْدِ اللَّهِ بْنِ عَطَاءٍ، عَنْ عَبْدِ اللَّهِ بْنِ بُرَيْدَةَ، عَنْ أَبِيهِ، قَالَ كُنْتُ جَالِسًا عِنْدَ النَّبِيِّ صلى الله عليه وسلم إِذْ أَتَتْهُ امْرَأَةٌ فَقَالَتْ يَا رَسُولَ اللَّهِ إِنِّي كُنْتُ تَصَدَّقْتُ عَلَى أُمِّي بِجَارِيَةٍ وَإِنَّهَا مَاتَتْ ‏.‏ قَالَ ‏"‏ وَجَبَ أَجْرُكِ وَرَدَّهَا عَلَيْكِ الْمِيرَاثُ ‏"‏ ‏.‏ قَالَتْ يَا رَسُولَ اللَّهِ إِنَّهَا كَانَ عَلَيْهَا صَوْمُ شَهْرٍ أَفَأَصُومُ عَنْهَا قَالَ ‏"‏ صُومِي عَنْهَا ‏"‏ ‏.‏ قَالَتْ يَا رَسُولَ اللَّهِ إِنَّهَا لَمْ تَحُجَّ قَطُّ أَفَأَحُجُّ عَنْهَا قَالَ ‏"‏ نَعَمْ حُجِّي عَنْهَا ‏"‏ ‏.‏ قَالَ أَبُو عِيسَى هَذَا حَدِيثٌ حَسَنٌ صَحِيحٌ وَلاَ يُعْرَفُ هَذَا مِنْ حَدِيثِ بُرَيْدَةَ إِلاَّ مِنْ هَذَا الْوَجْهِ ‏.‏ وَعَبْدُ اللَّهِ بْنُ عَطَاءٍ ثِقَةٌ عِنْدَ أَهْلِ الْحَدِيثِ ‏.‏ وَالْعَمَلُ عَلَى هَذَا عِنْدَ أَكْثَرِ أَهْلِ الْعِلْمِ أَنَّ الرَّجُلَ إِذَا تَصَدَّقَ بِصَدَقَةٍ ثُمَّ وَرِثَهَا حَلَّتْ لَهُ ‏.‏ وَقَالَ بَعْضُهُمْ إِنَّمَا الصَّدَقَةُ شَيْءٌ جَعَلَهَا لِلَّهِ فَإِذَا وَرِثَهَا فَيَجِبُ أَنْ يَصْرِفَهَا فِي مِثْلِهِ ‏.‏ وَرَوَى سُفْيَانُ الثَّوْرِيُّ وَزُهَيْرُ بْنُ مُعَاوِيَةَ هَذَا الْحَدِيثَ عَنْ عَبْدِ اللَّهِ بْنِ عَطَاءٍ ‏.‏

Grade: Sahih (Darussalam)

Reference : Jami` at-Tirmidhi 667

 

Abdullah bin Buraidah (May Allah be pleased with him)  narrated from his father who said:

"A woman came to the Prophet and said: 'My mother died and she did not perform Hajj should I perform Hajj on her behalf?' He said: 'Yes, perform Hajj on her behalf.'"

حَدَّثَنَا مُحَمَّدُ بْنُ عَبْدِ الأَعْلَى، حَدَّثَنَا عَبْدُ الرَّزَّاقِ، عَنْ سُفْيَانَ الثَّوْرِيِّ، عَنْ عَبْدِ اللَّهِ بْنِ عَطَاءٍ، ‏.‏ قَالَ وَحَدَّثَنَا عَلِيُّ بْنُ حُجْرٍ، حَدَّثَنَا عَلِيُّ بْنُ مُسْهِرٍ، عَنْ عَبْدِ اللَّهِ بْنِ عَطَاءٍ، عَنْ عَبْدِ اللَّهِ بْنِ بُرَيْدَةَ، عَنْ أَبِيهِ، قَالَ جَاءَتِ امْرَأَةٌ إِلَى النَّبِيِّ صلى الله عليه وسلم فَقَالَتْ إِنَّ أُمِّي مَاتَتْ وَلَمْ تَحُجَّ أَفَأَحُجُّ عَنْهَا قَالَ ‏ "‏ نَعَمْ حُجِّي عَنْهَا ‏"‏ ‏.‏ قَالَ أَبُو عِيسَى وَهَذَا حَدِيثٌ حَسَنٌ صَحِيحٌ ‏.‏

Grade: Sahih (Darussalam)

Reference : Jami` at-Tirmidhi 929

 

Tuesday, January 5, 2021

Wisdom Lies In Our Hearts

 



WISDOM LIES IN HEARTS

Author: Sajid Mahmood Ansari

There are a number of Qur’anic narratives that help us to conclude directly without any complexity that wisdom lies in hearts. Though the Greek philosophers and later scientists have been believing, for centuries, that the organ of wisdom is brain. But latest research in neuro-cardiology supports the Qur’anic narratives.

Qur’anic Narratives:

The most eminent Qur’anic narrative that illustrates this fact rests in Surah Muhammad. The narrative goes:

أَفَلَا يَتَدَبَّرُونَ الْقُرْآنَ أَمْ عَلَىٰ قُلُوبٍ أَقْفَالُهَا

Will they not, then, ponder over this Qur'an? - or are there locks upon their hearts? [1]

Subhan Allah! What a motivational Ayah is this!

 This Ayahclearly mentions that the organ of thinking and understanding is the heart instead of brain. The same fact has been illustrated in several other Ayaat. As follows:

أَفَلَمْ يَسِيرُوا فِي الْأَرْضِ فَتَكُونَ لَهُمْ قُلُوبٌ يَعْقِلُونَ بِهَا أَوْ آذَانٌ يَسْمَعُونَ بِهَا ۖ فَإِنَّهَا لَا تَعْمَى الْأَبْصَارُ وَلَٰكِن تَعْمَى الْقُلُوبُ الَّتِي فِي الصُّدُورِ

Have they, then, never journeyed about the earth, letting their hearts gain wisdom, and causing their ears to hear? Yet, verily, it is not their eyes that have become blind - but blind have become the hearts that are in their breasts![2]

The latest research in the fields of cardiology and neurology, proves that there exists a small brain in the human heart. This brain is scientifically called cardiac ganglion of Wrisberg. Generally a ganglion is an enlarged structure made by fusion of multiple nerves. Ganglia are ovoid structures containing cell bodies of neurons and glial cells supported by connective tissue.[3]

 These structures are found almost in all insects and vertebrates. Ganglia are also found along the spinal cord and trachea. But the Cardiac Ganglia are the largest ganglia found in human body.

The Journal Thoracic and Cardiovascular Surgery (JTCVS) published a report of scientific research conducted by the Department of Physiology, Loyola University Medical Center, Maywood, USA. This report observes:

Hearts obtained from autopsies and heart transplant procedures were sectioned, stained, and examined. Results indicate that the largest populations of cardiac ganglia are near the sinoatrial and atrioventricular nodes. Smaller collections of ganglia exist on the superior left atrial surface, the interatrial septum, and the atrial appendage-atrial junctions. Ganglia also exist at the base of the great vessels and the base of the ventricles. The right atrial free wall, atrial appendages, trunk of the great vessels, and most of the ventricular myocardium are devoid of cardiac ganglia. These findings suggest modifications to surgical procedures involving incisions through regions concentrated with ganglia to minimize arrhythmias and related complications.[4]

The same Journal goes further about the shape and structure of cardiac ganglia:

Small ganglia contained as few as one neuron, whereas larger ganglia contained as many as 37 neurons in one 10 μm thick cross-section. Ganglia were generally oval to circular in shape and branched in grapelike clusters from large-diameter, presumably vagal, nerves. Neurons were generally located at the periphery of the cardiac ganglia.[5]

It is notable that in insects, ganglia serve as brain to coordinate between the body parts and control the behavior.[6]

However, human cardiac ganglia are advanced ganglia that convert the heart into an Organ of Wisdom. The latest research regarding the heart-brain communication has changed the whole scenario. A non-profit organization Heartmath Institute observes:

“Traditionally, the study of communication pathways between the head and heart has been approached from a rather one-sided perspective, with scientists focusing primarily on the heart’s responses to the brain’s commands. We have learned, however, that communication between the heart and brain actually is a dynamic, ongoing, two-way dialogue, with each organ continuously influencing the other’s function. Research has shown that the heart communicates to the brain in four major ways: neurologically (through the transmission of nerve impulses), biochemically (via hormones and neurotransmitters), biophysically (through pressure waves) and energetically (through electromagnetic field interactions). Communication along all these conduits significantly affects the brain’s activity. Moreover, our research shows that messages the heart sends to the brain also can affect performance.” [7]

 It goes further:

“These observations have led to the understanding that healthy, optimal function is a result of continuous, dynamic, bidirectional interactions among multiple neural, hormonal and mechanical control systems at both local and central levels. In concert, these dynamic and interconnected physiological and psychological regulatory systems are never truly at rest and are certainly never static.”[8]

It reveals:

The heart-brain, as it is commonly called, or intrinsic cardiac nervous system, is an intricate network of complex ganglia, neurotransmitters, proteins and support cells, the same as those of the brain in the head. The heart-brain’s neural circuitry enables it to act independently of the cranial brain to learn, remember, make decisions and even feel and sense. Descending activity from the brain in the head via the sympathetic and parasympathetic branches of the ANS is integrated into the heart’s intrinsic nervous system along with signals arising from sensory neurons in the heart that detect pressure, heart rate, heart rhythm and hormones.[9]

Heartmath Institute concludes:

This means the heart sends more information to the brain than the brain sends to the heart. More recent research shows that the neural interactions between the heart and brain are more complex than previously thought. In addition, the intrinsic cardiac nervous system has both short-term and long-term memory functions and can operate independently of central neuronal command. [10]

All these findings regarding Heart Brain evidently prove the truthfulness of the Qur’anic narratives. It is heart that thinks and reflects, while brain just plays as an organ of coordination.


Monday, January 4, 2021

Arabian Peninsula: The Cradle of Humanity

Arabia




 

ARABIAN PENINSULA:
THE CRADLE OF HUMANITY

Arabian Peninsula:

Arabia or the Arabian subcontinent is a peninsula in Southwest Asia at the junction of Africa, Europe and Asia. The seas off the coast of the Arabian Peninsula are, on the west the Red Sea and the Gulf of Aqaba, on the northwest Mediterranean sea, on the southeast the Arabian Sea (part of the Indian Ocean), and on the northeast, the Gulf of Oman, the Strait of Hormuz, and the Arabian Gulf. It lies between 32o E to 60oE  and 13o N to 40o N. The Arabian Island extends Northward up to foothills of Taurus Mountains and Zagros Mountains.[1] Since the  early Islamic years, the peninsula has been called Jazira-tul-Arab ( Arabian Island), as it is surrounded by the sea in three sides and has a short range of land connection to the Asia Minor and Persian land, only in the north. Geologically, the whole land mass existing on the Arabian Plate composes Arabian Peninsula. [2]

Arabia


Makkah: The Mother of Towns

The History of Makkah is as old as the human’s history. The Arabian Peninsula has not only been a center of civilizations but the Cradle of Humanity. It is the place where first human couple Adam and Hawa (Peace be upon them) settled in the valley of Makkah, surrounded by As-Sirat mountains of Hijaz, at a distance of 50 miles from the Red Sea. It was the site where first human structure was erected in the shape of an asylum named Baitullah.

Verily, the first House (of worship) appointed for mankind was that at Bakkah (Makkah), full of blessing, and a guidance for Al-Alamin (the mankind and jinns).  [3]

Baitullah


Abu Dharr ( May Allah be pleased with him) reported:

I said: Messenger of Allah (May Allah shower His blessings and peace on him), which mosque was set up first on the earth? He said: Al-Masjid al-Haram (the sacred). I (again) said: Then which next? He said: It was the Masjid Aqsa. I (again) said: How long the space of time (between their setting up)? He (the Holy Prophet) said: It was forty years. And whenever the time comes for prayer, pray there, for that is a mosque; and in the hadith transmitted by Abu Kamil (the words are):" Whenever time comes for prayer, pray, for that is a mosque (for you)."

[Sahih Muslim:H.520]

Makkah


Abdullah bin Amr bin Al-Aas (May Allah be pleased with him) reported that the Messenger of Allah (May Allah shower His blessings and peace on him) told that Allah Almighty sent Jibreel A.S to Adam (Peace be upon him) and commanded him to construct a House of Worship for Him. So they constructed Baitullah (Al-Ka’abah).

[Musannaf Abdur Rzzaq, Tafsir Ibni Kathir)

So we can conclude from these reports that Adam and Hawa constructed the Baitullah first time. Definitely, this House of Worship was constructed for worshipping Allah Almighty. It was not constructed just for erecting a monument. Thence Adam and Hawa should have settled in Arabian Peninsula, to serve this asylum and circumambulate around it.

The Holy Qur’an declares Makkah as Ummul Qura, that literally means ‘the Mother of Towns’. This term indicates that Makkah was the first human settlement on the earth.



Allah Almighty said:

And thus We have inspired unto you (O Muhammad ) a Qur'an (in Arabic) that you may warn the Mother of the Towns (Makkah) and all around it. [4]

The earliest human activities in central Arabian Peninsula (mostly Saudi Arabia) have been recorded in archeological sites in Saudi Arabia.

A Sci-News magazine, published an awesome news about 120000 years old footprints in Nafud desert (Saudi Arabia) on Sep 21, 2020.

An international team of archaeologists and paleoanthropologists has found ancient human and animal footprints on the surface of an ancient lakebed in the Nefud Desert, Saudi Arabia. The footprints, dated to roughly 120,000 years ago, are contemporaneous with an early Homo sapiens out-of-Africa migration and represent the earliest evidence of our species in the Arabian Peninsula.

The researchers recorded a total of 376 fossilized footprints at the Alathar freshwater paleolake site in the western Nefud Desert.

“We immediately realized the potential of these findings,” said first author Dr. Mathew Stewart, a scientist in the Max Planck Institutes for Chemical Ecology, the Science of Human History, and Biogeochemistry.[5]

A well-known reporter of scientific findings, Sci-News reports:

An international team of archaeologists and paleoanthropologists has found fossil faunal remains and associated stone tools at the middle Pleistocene (300,000-500,000 years ago) locality of Ti’s al Ghadah in the Nefud Desert of Saudi Arabia. The discovery, reported in the journal Nature Ecology & Evolution, shows that hominins were present in the Arabian Peninsula at least 100,000 years earlier than previously known.[6]

Another website Science Direct observes:

In recent years, the Arabian Peninsula has emerged as a key region for elucidating hominin and faunal evolution and dispersals between Africa and Eurasia. Central to this research is the middle Pleistocene site of Ti's al Ghadah (TAG) which has yielded a diverse and abundant fossil faunal assemblage and the earliest chronometrically dated evidence for hominins in this part of the world.[7]



The well-known scientific research magazine Nature observes:

Despite its largely hyper-arid and inhospitable climate today, the Arabian Peninsula is emerging as an important area for investigating Pleistocene hominin dispersals. Recently, a member of our own species was found in northern Arabia dating to ca. 90 ka, while stone tools and fossil finds have hinted at an earlier, middle Pleistocene, hominin presence.[8]

These lengthy paragraphs from scientific sources prove that human beings have been living  in Arabian Peninsula for 120000 years. The so called out of Africa Human existence is confirmed for Arabian Peninsula.

Makkah has been a center of trade from the time of antiquity. It was located on the World Trade Route, that connected Middle East, India, Far East and Europe. Even before the advent of Islam, there was a time when the Arabs, particularly, Quraish of Makkah, had taken control over the land trade of spices from South Arabia to the Mediterranean Sea. Wikipedia observes:

In the first millennium BC the ArabsPhoenicians, and Indians were engaged in sea and land trade in luxury goods such as spices, gold, precious stones, leather of rare animals, ebony and pearls. The sea trade was in the Red Sea and the Indian Ocean. The sea route in the Red Sea was from Bab-el-Mandeb to Berenike and from there by land to the Nile and then by boats to Alexandria. The land trade was in deserts of Western Arabia using camels. In the second half of the first millennium BC the Arab tribes of South and West Arabia took control over the land trade of spices from South Arabia to the Mediterranean Sea.[9]

 


The cargos under these conditions were shipped to Aden (South Arabia) and carried to the Roman Empire through Levant on camels. Wikipedia observes:

The Periplus Maris Erythraei mentions a time when sea trade between Egypt and the subcontinent did not involve direct sailings. The cargo under these situations was shipped to Aden:

Aden – Arabia Eudaimon was called the fortunate, being once a city, when, because ships neither came from India to Egypt nor did those from Egypt dare to go further but only came as far as this place, it received the cargoes from both, just as Alexandriareceives goods brought from outside and from Egypt.

— Gary Keith Young, Rome's Eastern Trade: International Commerce and Imperial Policy[10]

Pliny the Elder complained the drainage of Roman wealth to Arabian Peninsula in these words (translated from Latin):

India, China and the Arabian peninsula take one hundred million sesterces from our empire per annum at a conservative estimate: that is what our luxuries and women cost us. For what fraction of these imports is intended for sacrifices to the gods or the spirits of the dead?

— Pliny, Historia Naturae 12.41.84  [11]

These references from European historians are sufficient to prove that Makkah enjoyed the maritime trade between India and Roman Empire, by playing a key role in the world trade.

It shows that Makkah has been an important trade station from the time immemorial. This fact leads us to conclude that Makkah has been one of the oldest towns of the world. Hence it supports the Qur’anic narrative ‘Verily, the first House (of worship) appointed for mankind was that at Bakkah (Makkah)’.

Famous historian Philip Khuri Hitti observes in The Arabia: A Short History:

The people of Arabia particularly Bedouins, have remained virtually the same throughout all recorded ages. And it was in Arabia that the ancestors of the Semitic peoples—the Babylonians, the Assyrians, the Chaldeans, Amorites, Aramaeans, the Phoenicians, Hebrews, Arabians and the Assyrian --- had their origin. Here they lived sometimes as one people.[12]

The Editors of ‘Encyclopedia of the Peoples of the Africa and the Middle East’ observes:

The most generally, but by no means exclusively, accepted hypothesis is that the original homeland of Semites was the Arabian Peninsula. The Semitic traditions, the historical sources, and ethnological data all point to Arabia as being the place from whwere the various Semitic peoples radiated. Arabia also constituted what is known as “Sheltered Area” with limited communication with the outside world and fewer external influences on its language and people than other areas of Semitic region. Hence the Nomadic Beduins’ way of life and the Arabic language remained relatively untouched and preserved in the Arabian Peninsula for long periods of time. It is also considered to be a law of history that people who practice agriculture do not revert to nomadic ways of life.[13]

This is what the majority of historians believe.



Agricultural Revolution

The earliest farming activities have been reported from Arabian Peninsula. These reports prove that Arabian Peninsula was the Cradle of Civilization.

The Neolithic Revolution, also called the Agricultural Revolution, marked the transition in human history from small, nomadic bands of hunter-gatherers to larger, agricultural settlements and early civilization. The Neolithic Revolution started around 10,000 B.C. in the Fertile Crescent, a boomerang-shaped region of the Middle East where humans first took up farming.[14]

It is notable that the Fertile Crescent is located in the northern part of Arabian Peninsula.



Domestication of Livestock

Again, Arabian Peninsula is the site where humans domesticated the wild animals to avoid all time hunting adventures.

The first livestock were domesticated from animals that Neolithic humans hunted for meat. Domestic pigs were bred from wild boars, for instance, while goats came from the Persian ibex. Domesticated animals made the hard, physical labor of farming possible while their milk and meat added variety to the human diet.[15]

The first farm animals also included sheep and cattle. These originated in Mesopotamia between 10,000 and 13,000 years ago. Water buffalo and yak were domesticated shortly after in ChinaIndia and Tibet.[16]

Migrations from Arabian Peninsula to Neighbouring Lands

Darwinists claim that the prime ancestors of Homo sapiens (pre-human species) lived in Africa around 200000 years ago. They hypothesized two terms Mitochondrial Eve and Y-Chromosomal Adam. Though the core concept of this hypothesis is based on scientific facts, but the inferences made from this hypothesis is wrong. They claim that Mitochondrial Eve and Y-Chromosomal Adam were living in Africa around 200000 years ago. While latest research on Tis al-Ghada (TAG) proves the theory proposed by Islamic literature. Adam and Hawa (Eve) lived in Arabian Peninsula. This was the place where first human settlement was established. From this subcontinent they migrated to Africa, Europe and Central Asia.



How the scientists think? Look at this scenario:

The first Homo sapiens fossil discovery in Saudi Arabia, and the oldest directly dated fossil for modern humans outside Africa and the Levant, has been found in the Nefud Desert. It shows that our species had spread beyond Africa much earlier than previously thought.

The multinational Palaeodeserts Project has spent years combing the deserts of Arabia for evidence of early human occupation and ancient environment. Its efforts paid off when a team, excavated the site of Al Wusta and unearthed a Homo sapiens finger bone at least 85,000 years old. The find is reported in a study published today in Nature Ecology & Evolution.

The team was led by Michael Petraglia at the Max Plank Institute for Science of Human History, Jenna, who describes the discovery as “a dream come true” and says it was “like finding the needle in the haystack.” [17]

Actually, relying on ‘Out of Africa Migration Hypothesis’ they think humans migrated from Africa to Arabian Peninsula, whereas the reality is reciprocal of this hypothesis.

A deep genetic study of Arabian genomes and comparing it with other genomes inferred the following realities:

After entering the Arabian Peninsula, human ancestors entered South Asia and spread to Australia (Rasmussen et al. 2011), Europe, and eventually, the Americas. The individuals in these migrations were the most direct ancestors of ancient non-African peoples, and they established the contemporary non-African populations recognized today (Cavalli-Sforza and Feldman 2003).[18]

According to Josephus (Antiquities of the Jews I.6):

Japhet, the son of Noah, had seven sons: they inhabited so, that, beginning at the mountains Taurus and Amanus, they proceeded along Asia, as far as the river Tanais (Don), and along Europe to Cadiz; and settling themselves on the lands which they light upon, which none had inhabited before, they called the nations by their own names.[19]

We can conclude from this quote that the descendants of Yafith (Japeth) migrated to the Anatolian region from Arabian Peninsula and inhabited around the Taurus mountain (present Turkey). Later on, they moved to neighbouring islands located in Ionian sea including Greece and Cyprus.

Wikipedia observes:

Greek colonies and communities have been historically established on the shores of the Mediterranean Sea and Black Sea, but the Greek people have always been centered on the Aegean and Ionian seas, where the Greek language has been spoken since the Bronze Age.[20]

It has been recorded that Greeks have used Abjad (Arabic alphabets) that were used to write Northwest Semitic languages, more specifically early PhoenicianMoabiteAmmoniteEdomiteHebrew and Old Aramaic.

This was a characteristic of the Bronze age. Using Abjad for writing in Greece shows a close relationship between the Arabs and Greece people in the ancient time. The well-known Greek language was derived from the same Abjad.

In Hebrew literature, Younan (Yawan) has been frequently used for Greece. Even the same practice has been recorded in in Ancient Persian and Indian languages like Sanskrit.[21]All these facts prove the truthfulness of the Qur’anic narratives and the Prophetic Traditions.

In short, Arabian Peninsula is not only the Cradle of humanity but cradle of civilization as well. From this subcontinent, people migrated to other regions and inhabited all the continents.

 

 



[1] http://pubs.usgs.gov/of/1997/ofr-97-470/OF97-470B/arabmap.html

[2] http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Arabian_Plate

[3] Al-Qur’an, [3:96]

[4]Al-Qur’an, [42:7]

[11]Ibid

[12] Philip Khuri Hitti, The Arabia: A Short History, p.7

[13]Encyclopedia of the Peoples of the Africa and the Middle East, p.621

[15]Ibid

[16]Ibid