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Basics of the Muslim Cosmology

In the Name of ALLAH, the Beneficent, the Merciful. Author :Sajid Mahmood Ansari Introduction: All praise is due to ALLAH and His blessi...

Tuesday, June 15, 2021

The Cosmic Web

 

The Cosmic Web

The Cosmic Web

Author: Sajid Mahmood Ansari

The Holy Qur’an is primarily the book of guidance. It is not only the source of guidance for religious practices and principles, but, universal wisdom as well. The Qur’an gives a unique cosmology, beyond the myths and superstitions. We discussed the Qur’anic cosmology briefly, in the paper Origin of The Cosmos.  Now we are presenting an amazing fact that was mentioned in the Qur’an 1400 years ago. Allah Almighty says:

وَالسَّمَاءِ ذَاتِ الْحُبُكِ

By the heaven that is knitted helically.[1]

This amazing Qur’anic narrative about the heaven is mind blowing. The majority of the early interpreters of the Qur’an referred this knitted network to the beauty of the heavenly bodies, including stars, planets and galaxies. However, the Qur’anic annotation used to describe the nature of heaven is ذَاتِ الْحُبُكِ that literally refers to knitted helically.[2]

Cosmic web:3D view


In cosmology, galaxy filaments are the largest known structures in the universe, consisting of walls of gravitationally bound galaxy superclusters. These massive, thread-like formations can reach 80 megaparsecs h−1…..[3]

These galactic filaments form a complicated network, called cosmic web. NewScientistobserves:

Some of the largest structures in the universe appear to be rotating. The filaments of galaxies forming the cosmic web that stretches between galaxy clusters seem to be spinning, which could help us figure out why galaxies themselves – and everything else in space – rotate.[4]
NewScientistmoves further:

As the galaxies orbited the centres of their filaments, they also fell towards the galaxy clusters that mark the ends of each strand. “These galaxies are moving on these corkscrew-like, helical orbits,” says Libeskind. The filaments that ended at more massive clumps of galaxies seemed to rotate faster, but it isn’t yet clear why.[5]

Cosmic web


How beautifully, the Qur’an described the nature of the largest heavenly objects, in the time when so called Greek cosmology dominated the Europe. It is notable that, the interpretation we opted is neither farfetched, nor innovative with respect to early Muslim generations.
This Qur’anic narrative leads the impartial minds to draw a conclusion that it was impossible for any intellectual, living in the middle of first millennium C.E, to pass such a scientific statement about heavenly nature, while it has been discovered only in twenty first century. Definitely, the Qur’an could not be produced by a human being, but it is the Divine Speech.

 

 

Thursday, June 10, 2021

Is Abortion Lawful From Islamic Perspective?

Abortion

 

Is Abortion Lawful From Islamic Perspective?

Author: Sajid Mahmood Ansari

The deliberate termination of a human pregnancy, most often performed during the first 28 weeks of pregnancy, is generally called abortion. Biologically speaking, the expulsion of a fetus from the uterus by natural causes before it is able to survive independently is also termed as abortion.[1]

This paper confines to elaborating the legal position of induced abortion, in Islam. Islam, as a principle, protects life of the innocent people and prohibits any assault against the living creatures, particularly, human beings. The human life begins right from the formation of zygote in a female’s uterus. Islam not only protects life of a viable fetus but undifferentiated embryo as well. The Muslim scholarship agreed that killing a viable fetus is a deliberate murder, if it survives for a while after termination of pregnancy. In this case, the person, who deliberately caused abortion, is liable to pay blood money (Diyah) equal to the blood money paid in case of a murder of a full flagged human being.[2]The Muslim Scholarship derived this ruling from the Qur’an and Sunnah.

Allah s.w.t says in Surah Al-An’am:

قُلْ تَعَالَوْا أَتْلُ مَا حَرَّمَ رَبُّكُمْ عَلَيْكُمْ ۖ أَلَّا تُشْرِكُوا بِهِ شَيْئًا ۖ وَبِالْوَالِدَيْنِ إِحْسَانًا ۖ وَلَا تَقْتُلُوا أَوْلَادَكُم مِّنْ إِمْلَاقٍ ۖ نَّحْنُ نَرْزُقُكُمْ وَإِيَّاهُمْ ۖ وَلَا تَقْرَبُوا الْفَوَاحِشَ مَا ظَهَرَ مِنْهَا وَمَا بَطَنَ ۖ وَلَا تَقْتُلُوا النَّفْسَ الَّتِي حَرَّمَ اللَّهُ إِلَّا بِالْحَقِّ ۚ ذَٰلِكُمْ وَصَّاكُم بِهِ لَعَلَّكُمْ تَعْقِلُونَ

Say, "Come, I will recite what your Lord has prohibited to you. [He commands] that you not associate anything with Him, and to parents, good treatment, and do not kill your children out of poverty; We provide sustenance for you and them. And do not approach immoralities - what is apparent of them and what is concealed. And do not kill the soul which Allah has forbidden [to be killed] except by [legal] right. This has He instructed you that you may use reason."[3]

Allah Almighty says Surah Al-Asra:

وَلَا تَقْتُلُوا أَوْلَادَكُمْ خَشْيَةَ إِمْلَاقٍ ۖ نَّحْنُ نَرْزُقُهُمْ وَإِيَّاكُمْ ۚ إِنَّ قَتْلَهُمْ كَانَ خِطْئًا كَبِيرًا 

And do not kill your children for fear of poverty. We provide sustenance for them and for you. Indeed, their killing is ever a great sin.[4]

Allah Almighty says Surah An-Nisa:

وَمَا كَانَ لِمُؤْمِنٍ أَن يَقْتُلَ مُؤْمِنًا إِلَّا خَطَأً ۚ وَمَن قَتَلَ مُؤْمِنًا خَطَأً فَتَحْرِيرُ رَقَبَةٍ مُّؤْمِنَةٍ وَدِيَةٌ مُّسَلَّمَةٌ إِلَىٰ أَهْلِهِ إِلَّا أَن يَصَّدَّقُوا ۚ

Never should a believer kill a believer; but (If it so happens) by mistake, (Compensation is due): If one (so) kills a believer, it is ordained that he should free a believing slave, and pay compensation (Diyah) to the deceased's family, unless they remit it freely. [5]

The Messenger of Allah (May Allah shower His blessings and peace upon him) set the Blood Money equal to 100 she-camels or their price in hard cash. [6]

Narrated Amr bin Shu'aib:

from his father, from his grandfather (Abdullah bin Amr bn Al-Aas R.A)  that the Prophet () said: "Whoever kills [a believer] deliberately, he is handed over to the guardians of the one killed. If they wish to, they have him killed, and if they wish to, they take the blood-money. That is thirty Hiqqah (a type of camels), thirty Jadha'ahs (a type of camels) and forty pregnant camels. Whatever (amount more) they require from him, than that is for them (if they choose)."[7]

Though an embryo resides in the mother’s uterus as her body part; still it has an independent life, it is considered a separate human being biologically. Though, it is a matter of fact that an unviable embryo independently, is not a perfect human being, as compared to a born baby alive. Still, killing an unviable embryo is a ridiculous crime, which should be banned and administrated properly. That is why in Islamic Law, a lesser blood money is due on a person who causes abortion of an unviable embryo.

'Amr bin Dinar narrated that:

he heard Tawus narrate from Abdullah Ibn Abbas (May Allah be pleased with them), from Umar (may Allah be pleased with him) that he asked about the ruling of the Messenger of Allah concerning that. Hamal bin Malik stood up and said: "I was married to two women, and one of them struck the other with a tent pole and killed her and her fetus. The Prophet ruled that a slave be given (as Diyah) for her fetus and that she be killed (for killing the other woman)." [8]

Narrated Abu Hurairah (May Allah be pleased with him):

Two women from the tribe of Hudhail (fought with each other) and one of them threw (a stone at) the other, causing her to have a miscarriage and Allah's Messenger () gave his verdict that the killer (of the fetus) should give a male or female slave (as a Diya). [9]

It was narrated that Abu Hurairah said:

“The Messenger of Allah () ruled concerning a fetus that (the blood money) was a slave, male and female. The one against whom this verdict was passed said: ' Should we pay blood money for one who neither ate, drunk, shouted, nor cried, (at the moment of birth)? One such as this should be overlooked .' The Messenger of Allah () said: 'This man speaks like a poet. (But the blood money for a fetus is) a slave, male, or female.'” [10]

 

However Islam allows induced abortion in a case where woman’s life is threatened.

It is lawful to cause to have an abortion if a mother's life becomes in a critical state. This lawfulness is based on the following:

1) When a mother's life is in a critical state, her fetus' life will be so; i.e., in most cases the mother's death results in the fetus' death.

2) This legality assuredly saves the mother while it is not sure that fetus will stay alive after confinement. So, it is better to give preference to what is certain over what is uncertain.

3) Islam gives precedence to the origin over a descendant. In other words, the mother represents the origin of the fetus' life, but the fetus represents the descendant. So, in accordance with Islam, it is not possible to sacrifice the origin for the sake of descendant.[11]

So called liberals want to end all legal barriers to abortion. [12]Once gain they claim that abortion is a right for women, because, they can decide better for their own body. But, they forget that fetus is not an essential part of a mother but fetus is a separate entity, even if it is not viable. Just 21 days after fertilization, the embryo’s heartbeat can be detected by ultrasound machine. So a person who induces abortion does not throw away a mass of tissues, but stops a beating heart.[13]

Still the women, who undergo abortion, faces a lot of negative effects of this negative action. For details you can read this article.

 



[2] Ibni Qudamah, Al-Mughni wa Sharhul Kabir, vol.9, p.543, Darul Kutubul Ilmiyah Beirut, Lebanon

[3]Al-Qur’an, 6:151

[4]Al-Qur’an, 17:31

[5] Al-Qur’an, 4:92

Saturday, June 5, 2021

Climate Change and Islamic Injunctions

Climate Change

 

Climate Change and Islamic Injunctions

Islam is a complete code of life which guides us in all the social, economic and cultural dominions. Allah Almighty has made the humans caretaker of the earth[1], by giving him powers to manipulate the natural resources. According to Islamic faith, everybody is responsible for his actions, whether they affect one’s own life or the life of other living beings. Islam does not allow wasting personal commodities or natural resources as well.

يَا بَنِي آدَمَ خُذُوا زِينَتَكُمْ عِندَ كُلِّ مَسْجِدٍ وَكُلُوا وَاشْرَبُوا وَلَا تُسْرِفُوا ۚ إِنَّهُ لَا يُحِبُّ الْمُسْرِفِينَ [2] 

O children of Adam, take your adornment [i.e., wear your clothing] at every masjid, and eat and drink, but be not excessive. Indeed, He likes not those who commit excess.

عَنْ عَبْدِ اللَّهِ بْنِ عَمْرِو بْنِ الْعَاصِ رضي الله عنهما (أَنَّ النَّبِيَّ صَلَّى اللَّهُ عَلَيْهِ وَسَلَّمَ مَرَّ بِسَعْدٍ وَهُوَ يَتَوَضَّأُ فَقَالَ : مَا هَذَا السَّرَفُ يَا سَعْدُ ؟ قَالَ : أَفِي الْوُضُوءِ سَرَفٌ ؟ قَالَ : نَعَمْ ، وَإِنْ كُنْتَ عَلَى نَهْرٍ جَارٍ

Abdullah bin Amr bin Al-Aas (May Allah be pleased with them) reported that once the Prophet (May Allah shower His blessings and peace upon him) passed by Sa’d (May Allah be pleased with them) while he was performing Wudhu. He (May Allah shower His blessings and peace upon him) why are you wasting water O’ Sa’d? He asked, “Does wasting water imply with Wudhu as well?” He (May Allah shower His blessings and peace upon him) said: Yes, even if you were on the bank of a flowing river.[3]

This is only one example of wastage of natural resources that has been strongly disliked even for ritual purification. How could a faith allow wasting natural resources just for recreation, that disallows such a practice for religious purpose.

The Prophet Muhammad (May Allah shower His blessings and peace upon him) forbade to urinate in the water.[4] The purpose of this command is to avoid water pollution.

Planting trees has been strongly commended in Islam. Planting is declared a sort of charity.

Narrated Jabir bin Abdullah (May Allah be pleased with them) on the authority of Ummi Mubashir (Wife of Zayd bin Haritha):

The Prophet () said, "If any Muslim plants any tree and a bird, animal or human being eats of it, he will be rewarded as if he had given that much in charity." [5]

Today we know that drastic climate changes are product of misuse or excessive use of natural resources and environmental pollution.  US Geological Survey observes:

There are many “natural” and “anthropogenic” (human-induced) factors that contribute to climate change. Climate change has always happened on Earth, which is clearly seen in the geological record; it is the rapid rate and the magnitude of climate change occurring now that is of great concern worldwide. Greenhouse gases in the atmosphere absorb heat radiation. Human activity has increased greenhouse gases in the atmosphere since the Industrial Revolution, leading to more heat retention and an increase in surface temperatures. Atmospheric aerosols alter climate by scattering and absorbing solar and infrared radiation and they may also change the microphysical and chemical properties of clouds. Finally, land-use changes, such as deforestation have led to changes in the amount of sunlight reflected from the ground back into space (the surface albedo).” [6]



[1] Al-Qur’an, 2:30

[2] Al-Quran, 7:31

[3] Musnad Ahmad: H#6768, 7065, Sunan Ibni Majah:H#425

[4] Sahih Muslim: H#281

[5] Musnad Ahmad:H#27905

 


Visit to Makkah

 


Ya’juj and Ma’juj : The Ancient Cannibals

 

Ya'juj and Ma'juj




Ya’juj and Ma’juj : The Ancient Cannibals

Author: Sajid Mahmood Ansari

In the Holy Qur’an, Ya’juj and Ma’juj have been described as the mischievous people, who horrified other human beings repeatedly. The majority of Mufassirin (Qur’anic Commentators) are of the opinion that Ya’juj and Ma’juj were two ancient tribes from the descendants of Japheth bin Noah. So, more likely, Ya’juj and Ma’juj are human beings, but a study of the hadiths shows that they are very different from ordinary human beings. The Qur'an also mentions in the story of Dul-Qarnain the Great (Al-Kahf:83-100), that Ya’juj and Ma’juj are very savage and bloodthirsty tribes. There is sufficient evidence in the ancient history and some clues in the Quran and Hadith to conclude that Ya’juj and Ma’juj are cannibals (man-eating tribes). We mentioned in our paper  Dhul-Qarnain the Great: A Modern Review that  Ya’juj and Ma’juj might be present in Siberian mountains, where Dhul-Qarnain build an iron-barrier to stop their attacks.

The important question is why Dhul-Qarnain, despite being the king of the world's largest empire and the commander of the world's most powerful army, could not defeat Ya’juj and Ma’juj? On the contrary, instead of eliminating them, why he considered it enough to block their way of attacking?

This clearly means that Dhul-Qarnain and his army did not have the strength and courage to fight Ya’juj and Ma’juj. After all, what characteristics of Ya’juj and Ma’juj made them unbeatable? Even then, the most powerful king was helpless before them? Let us try to find the answer to these questions from the hadiths.

It is narrated on the authority of Nawas bin Samaan (may Allah be pleased with him) that the Holy Prophet (peace and blessings of Allah be upon him) said: When Jesus (peace be upon him) kills Dajjal (the antichrist), Allah will reveal to him that I am sending to you people, no one is able to fight against them. Take these (believing) servants of mine away to mountains. Then Allah will send Ya’juj and Ma’juj.[1]

The main reason behind the invincible powers of  Ya’juj and Ma’juj seems to be their man-eating habit. Imam ibni Jarir At-Tabri quotes Imam Saeed bin Abdul Aziz Ad-Demashqi (90 -167 H) who said while interpreting the mischief spread by Ya’juj and Ma’juj:

قال :

سمعت سعيد بن عبد العزيز يقول في قوله 

( إِنَّ يَأْجُوجَ وَمَأْجُوجَ مُفْسِدُونَ فِي الأرْضِ ) 

كانوا يأكلون الناس[2].

Imam Saeed bin Abdul Aziz said the Allah’s word  ( إِنَّ يَأْجُوجَ وَمَأْجُوجَ مُفْسِدُونَ فِي الأرْضِ )  means they (Ya’juj and Ma’juj) used to eat people.

Ya’juj and Ma’juj’s same bloodthirsty nature and man-eating habit has been mentioned in Imam Wahab bin Munabbih Al-Yamani’s narration in Tafsir Ibni Jarir. Though, this narration is somewhat weak,[3]supports the previously mentioned saying of Imam Saeed bin Abdul Aziz Ad-Demashqi.

A Samoyedic family eating raw meat


The oldest language spoken in Siberia is the Samoyedic language, the language of the indigenous  Samoyedic people. In Russian language, Samoyed means self-eaters.[4]The Samoyedic people are the closest relatives to Ya’juj and Ma’juj. Since, the Samoyedic people live in the same region, where Ya’juj and Ma’juj once have lived; the Samoyedic people were also thought to be cannibals, by the European historians. The eating habits of the Samoyedic people are somewhat similar to those of the man-eating tribes. The Samoyeds are accustomed to eating raw meat and drinking blood. The reindeer is a Siberian pet. Its raw meat and blood is their favorite food. Probably the Ya’juj and Ma’juj tribes also become savages and cannibals because of their food habits. The famous Greek historian Herodotus, in his book Histories, mentions the man-eating tribes which invaded Greek lands, from the northeast. Herodotus used the term Androphagi for them, which in modern language is called anthropophagus or cannibal. Herodotus notes:

“The manners of the Androphagi are more savage than those of any other race. They neither observe justice, nor are governed, by any laws. They are nomads, and their dress is Scythian; but the language which they speak is peculiar to themselves. Unlike any other nation in these parts, they are cannibals.” [5]

Encyclopedia Britannica observes:

ANDROPHAGI (Gr. for “man-eaters”), an ancient nation of cannibals north of Scythia (Herodotus iv. 18, 106), probably in the forests between the upper waters of the Dnieper and Don. They were most likely Finns (Samoyed has the same meaning) and perhaps the ancestors of the Mordvinians (q.v.).”[6]

Ya'juj


This is what the Greek and other European experts guessed about the land of the cannibals, located in the northern region of Caucasia. Existence of cannibals is not a myth or a folk tale alone. Archaeological sites have shown signs of scratching flesh and breaking or crushing human bones, at certain burials, indicating that those people were attacked and eaten by some other ferocious human beings. [7]

How did Ya’juj and Ma’juj turn into cannibals?

Due to eating of raw meat and drinking of blood constantly, their DNA had undergone such dramatic changes that they have developed extraordinary traits and strange eating behaviors. These behaviors are inherited through generations and become an inevitable, coincidentally consistent with laws of genetics. Genetic mutations make their way in the large but isolated populations, through centuries and muted traits become dominant over time.

DNA


“The development and function of an organism is in large part controlled by genes. Mutations can lead to changes in the structure of an encoded protein or to a decrease or complete loss in its expression. Because a change in the DNA sequence affects all copies of the encoded protein, mutations can be particularly damaging to a cell or organism. In contrast, any alterations in the sequences of RNA or protein molecules that occur during their synthesis are less serious because many copies of each RNA and protein are synthesized.” [8]

Point Mutation


Generally, mutations occur spontaneously and cause abnormalities in an organism, especially humans. However, over a larger time scale, these mutations may develop certain abnormal traits in an individual and population. So development of cannibalism in Ya’juj and Ma’juj is the product of genetic mutations.

Do Ya’juj and Ma’juj exist today?

In Dhul-Qarnain’s account, it is mentioned that Ya’juj and Ma’juj were blocked or imprisoned between two mighty mountains and an iron-wall was built as a barrier against them.  According to authentic Hadiths, they not only existed in Prophet Muhammad’s life (May Allah shower His blessings and peace on him), but the said barrier was intact. Only a small hole of the size of a coin was made in that wall.

Narrated Zainab bint Jahsh (may Allah be pleased with her)

That the Prophet () once came to her in a state of fear and said, "None has the right to be worshipped but Allah. Woe unto the Arabs from a danger that has come near. An opening has been made in the wall of Ya’juj and Ma’juj like this," making a circle with his thumb and index finger. Zainab bint Jahsh (may Allah be pleased with her) said, "O Allah's Messenger ()! Shall we be destroyed even though there are pious persons among us?" He said, "Yes, when the evil person will increase." [9]

As it has been mentioned in Abu Hurairah’s Hadith, Ya’juj and Ma’juj would be released after assassination of Dajjal. It indicates clearly that Ya’juj and Ma’juj ont only existed in Prophet’s time but at present as well.

Siberian Mountains


Where are Ya’juj and Ma’juj

It is an important question if Ya’juj and Ma;juj really exist today, then, where are these cannibals? In our previous paper Dhul-Qarnain the Great: A Modern Review , we did mention that the possible place of residing Ya’juj and Ma’juj might be Siberian forests. Despite the latest technology, a number of mysteries are waiting for being solved including Bermuda Triangle, Stonehenge and Egyptian Pyramids etc. The Arctic Siberia is extremely cold with lowest recorded temperature as 90 degrees below freezing point.[10]Such an extreme cold environment makes it harder if not impossible to investigate the forests in this region.

Frozen Siberian Forest

Possibly, Dhul-Qarnian's wall might be covered by some glaciers; due to global warming glaciers tend to melt; so the said wall might be revealed after melting glaciers.

Melting Glaciers


When would the Dhul-Qarnain’s Barrier breach?

Read this Hadith again:

It is narrated on the authority of Nawas bin Simaan (may Allah be pleased with him) that the Holy Prophet (peace and blessings of Allah be upon him) said: When Jesus (peace be upon him) kills Dajjal (the antichrist), Allah will reveal to him that I am sending to you people, no one is able to fight against them. Take these (believing) servants of mine away to mountains. Then Allah will send Ya’juj and Ma’juj.[11]

This Hadith clearly mentions that Ya’juj and Ma’juj will be released from their captivity after the assassination of Dajjal by the Jesus’ blessed hands (En sha Allah). Definitely, this forecast is awaiting to be witnessed. So the claims that Dhul-Qarnai’s wall has been already breached; are not consistent.

The following hadith is noteworthy regarding Ya’juj and Ma’juj.

It is narrated on the authority of Abu Hurayrah (may Allah be pleased with him) that the Prophet (peace and blessings of Allah be upon him) said: Ya’juj and Ma’juj dig the wall in their path every night, even when the sun is about to rise; their leader says: Let's just dig the rest tomorrow, but Allah makes this wall harder than ever. Until when their captivity is over and Allah wants to allow them to attack the people, Ya’juj and Ma’juj are digging the wall and the sun is about to rise, their leader will say, " Let's just dig the rest tomorrow Inshallah”, then they come the next day, they will find the wall in the same condition in which they left. Then they will be able to dig it out completely and attack the people. They will drink the water of the lakes and the people will take refuge in their forts. Then they will shoot arrows into the sky, which will return with blood on them. They will say, "We have driven out the people of the earth and defeated the people of the heavens as well." Then Allah will send some insects (like grasshoppers) which will enter their necks and kill them. Animals of the earth will eat their flesh and become very fat and fresh.[12]

Why Ya’juj and Ma’juj dig the wall only at night? There is a clear indication in this hadith that Ya’juj and Ma’juj come to the open space only at night, because, they are afraid of light. It seems that they are suffering from photophobia. The Qur'an al-Hakim states that they live in narrow and dark valleys between high mountains. Having been away from light for thousands of years, their eyes could not withstand the bright light. As a result, they have developed photophobia.

These Hadiths evidently reject the misconceptions regarding Ya’juj and Ma’juj that different groups are spreading for their political agenda. The following points can be easily deducted from the aforementioned Hadiths:

1.     Ya’juj and Ma’juj are not normal humans.

2.     They are permanently, suffering a medical problem called photophobia.

3.     Despite modern technology, people would not be able to eliminate them.

4.     They would be released from their captivity after assassination of Dajjal.

5.     They would be killed by a sort of worms in a short time period.

  These implications, deducted from authentic Hadiths, neither could be applied to the Turks, nor Khazar Jews. It is a matter of fact that these misconceptions could not withstand the authentic Hadiths.

This is what we comprehended and Allah s.w.t knows the best.



[1] Sahih Muslim H.No. 2937

 

[9]Sahih al-Bukhari: Hadith No.7059

[11] Sahih Muslim H.No. 2937

 

[12] Sunan Ibn Majah, Hadith No. 4080