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Basics of the Muslim Cosmology

In the Name of ALLAH, the Beneficent, the Merciful. Author :Sajid Mahmood Ansari Introduction: All praise is due to ALLAH and His blessi...

Wednesday, September 29, 2021

Shahadah: Declaration of Faith

 

Shahadah: Declaration of Faith


Shahadah: Declaration of Faith

Author: Sajid Mahmood Ansari

Shahadah refers to declaration of the fundamental Islamic faith that circles around the Oneness of Only God Almighty and the Prophe-thood of the last Divine Messenger Muhammad (PBUH). The literal meaning of Shahadah goes as follows:

I bear witness that there is no god but Allah, and there is no partner with Him. And I bear witness that Muhammad is His Servant and a Messenger.

That is, I confess and affirm with my tongue and heart that Allah Subhanahu wa Ta'ala is the Creator, Lord and Master of the universe. Nothing in the universe is hidden from Him. His Exalted Essence is beyond the Universe; the vastness of time and space cannot encompass His Essence. Everything has been created by Him except His Attributes. His Glorious Names represent His Essence. He is independent of all the things, while everything needs Him for its existence. He is not mere a perception, but the real God of the universe. He is unique and matchless with all His attributes. Nothing is comparable to Him. All the necessities for the survival of man and his life have been created by the Most Merciful and Compassionate Lord.  He is the Sovereign, the power of every gain and loss is in His hands, abundance and sustenance in provision, death and resurrection, honor and humiliation, disease and healing, suffering and relief, birth of children or Infertility is all under his control. What He wanted happened and what He didn't want didn't happen, so He deserves to be called upon in every difficulty, every need be sought from Him. He should be thanked for all the blessings bestowed upon a person and vows should be made in His name. He is not absent from anywhere, that is, His command is omnipresent everywhere, so He is worthy to be feared by Him and to use all one's abilities to please Him. May the utmost humility be manifested before Him and may the ultimate love be specified for Him. So He is worthy of all kinds of worship. No entity should be involved in His worship because no prophet, angel, saint, elder or other creature possesses any of the attributes of His divinity. Just as the universe is subject to His command, so it is obligatory upon every human being to obey His every command. His command is the law which is obligatory for all to follow.

The Prophet (peace and blessings of Allah be upon him) is the most beloved and best servant of Allah. He is the leader of all the Prophets (peace and blessings of Allah be upon them). After the manifestation of His Prophet-hood in this world, Allah has appointed no one a Prophet in the past nor will appoint in the future. Prophet Muhammad (peace and blessings of Allah be upon him) is incomparable in his personality and character. In His superior human qualities, other human beings are similar only in names. Allah Almighty revealed His Book the Holy Qur’an to him. It is mandatory for all the Muslims to follow the teachings of the Prophet Muhammad (peace and blessings of Allah be upon him) including the Holy Qur’an and Sunnah.

Unlike ordinary human beings, he was free from animal lusts.  He is such a masterpiece of the most beautiful combination of light and matter that there is no precedent in the universe, so he is superior to all other creatures. He is the ultimate authority for the guidance in this world. Allah (swt)  blessed him with innumerable tidings and supernatural qualities which are called miracles. Whatever he prophesied under the guidance of divine revelation proved to be one hundred percent true in his time, while many of his prophecies are about to be fulfilled. He is the intercessor of the Day of Judgment. With the permission of God, he will ask God’s forgiveness for the people of Tawheed.

Sunday, September 26, 2021

Prophet Muhammad (pbuh) Predicted the Laws of Genetics

mendel law

 Prophet Muhammad (PBUH) Predicted the Laws of Genetics

Author: Sajid Mahmood Ansari

Prophet Muhammad (PBUH) predicted the Laws of Genetics. This statement is supported by a number of reports transmitted from the Prophet (PBUH).

 Abdullah bin Abbas (A.S) reported that Prophet Muhammad (PBUH) said:

“Discharge of man and woman fuse together, when man’s discharge (sperm) dominates the woman’s discharge (ovum), the baby is a boy; and when woman’s discharge dominates the man’s discharge the baby is a girl.”

[Musnad Ahmad: H#2483]

There is another report that gives more details of genetics.

Anas bin Malik (R.A) reported that Prophet Muhammad (PBUH) said:

“Man's discharge (sperm) is thick and white and the discharge of woman (ovum) is thin and yellow; so the resemblance comes from the one whose discharge prevails or dominates.”

[Musnad Ahmad: H#12247, Sahih Muslim:H#311]

Ayesha (R.A) reported that Prophet Muhammad (PBUH) said:

“When woman’s discharge (ovum) dominates that of man, the baby resembles his maternal relatives, when man’s discharge dominates that of woman, the baby resembles him.”

[Musnad Ahmad: H#25117]

hereditary traits

Austrian monk Gregor Mendel, born in 1882, studied the deeply how hereditary characters pass on from one generation to the next generation. He experimented on pea plants for years and eventually discovered three natural laws of heredity. He proposed a term ‘hereditary factors’ that controls the hereditary patterns. Today we know that these ‘hereditary factors’ are nothing but genes that are located on thread like structures in nucleus of a cell, called chromosomes. Every species has a definite number of chromosomes in somatic cells. Germ cells (sperm and ovum) are produced by meiosis, which ensures half (haploid) number of chromosomes in germ cells as compared to somatic cells. For example human somatic cells have 46 chromosomes, and half of them (23) go to each germ cell.


sex chromosomes


Sex Determination

A sex chromosome is a type of chromosome that participates in sex determination. Humans and most other mammals have two sex chromosomes, the X and the Y. Females have two X chromosomes in their somatic cells, while males have both X and a Y chromosomes in their somatic cells. Egg cells all contain an X chromosome, while sperm cells contain an X or Y chromosome. When a sperm fertilizes an ovum, the sperm may contain either X chromosome or Y chromosome. If sperm carrying X chromosome fertilizes the ovum, the outcome is a baby girl because zygote contains XX chromosome. While a sperm carrying Y chromosome fertilizes the ovum, the outcome is a baby boy, because zygote contains XY chromosomes. In the Ibni Abbas’s Hadith mentioned above, the woman’s discharge stands for X chromosome and man’s discharge stands for Y chromosome.



Law of Dominance and Recessive

Men­del designated dominant, the character which appears in first filial generation masking the effect of the factor for the other character, the character which does not appear is called recessive. For example tallness is due to a dominant factor (T) and dwarfness is due to a recessive factor (t). In a hybrid, as long as the dominant factor is present, the rece­ssive factor does not produce any obvious effect.[1]

This is how the maternal or paternal characters dominate in a baby. Because a baby inherits chromosomes and respective genes from both parents, so it shows a mixture of characters. But in most cases maternal or paternal characters are dominant. This is due to dominance of maternal or paternal genes.

law of dominance


Cousin Marriage boosts Hereditary Diseases

It is no wonder, that Prophet Muhammad (PBUH) married to eleven women from different clans, for the sake of preparing ‘Female Teachers’ to educate the women. But it is strange that none of these marriages was a cousin marriage. Likewise, the Prophet (PBUH) married his four daughters to men of Quraish, but none of them was their cousin. It simply means that he knew the laws of genetics well, and he discouraged cousin marriage through his practice.

Dr. Alison Shaw from Department of Public Health, University of Oxford, observes:

Marriage between relatives such as first cousins increases the risk in children not of general birth defects and genetic problems of all kinds but of what geneticists call 'recessive' conditions: those caused by inheriting two copies of a gene each of which carries a mutation. It seems we may each carry about 12 mutations associated with recessive conditions. There are about 3.5 thousand recessive conditions, most of them very rare, so the chance of both partners carrying a mutation in the same gene is low. If both parents carry the same recessive mutation they then have a one in four risk of an affected child each time they conceive a child.[2]

A brilliant example of hereditary disease is well known as Royal Family Disease.

Hemophilia, better known as the royal disease, is a blood clotting disorder that arose in Britain’s royal lineage, where the disease gets its pet name. Queen Victoria was a carrier of Hemophilia and supposedly passed on the ailment to the royal family. Hemophilia was responsible for the death of many Royal Princes.

Hemophilia is an X chromosome recessive disorder that propagates from women. However, it has proved to be life-threatening, majorly in the case of men. The royal disease prevents blood clotting, leading to the thinness of the blood, making it difficult to heal wounds, and the blood flows into organs it is not supposed to.

It is believed hemophilia was passed on from Queen Victoria into the British, German, Spanish, and Russian royalties. The royals used to marry their offspring strictly into other royals only. It was also common to marry a prince with his first cousin princess, which is why genetic mutations were common. [3]


Sunday, September 19, 2021

Belief in Scriptures

 

Belief in Scriptures

Author: Sajid Mahmood Ansari

Belief in the Divine Scriptures is the third article of Islamic Faith. Allah Almighty not only sent Messengers but He s.w.t also revealed Holy Scriptures to them for guidance. It is mandatory for all the Muslims to believe in all the Scriptures inclusively, but in general pattern, without going through the minute details of these Scriptures.

Allah Almighty said:

“The Messenger (Muhammad) believes in what has been sent down to him from his Lord, and (so do) the believers. Each one believes in Allah, His Angels, His Scriptures, and His Messengers. (They say,) ‘We make no discrimination of His Messengers’ — and they say, ‘We hear, and we obey. (We seek) Your forgiveness, our Lord, and to You is the return (of all)”.

[Al-Qur’an, 2:285]

If a Muslim affirms the truthfulness of the Scriptures, even without knowing the names of these Scriptures; it is sufficient for the purpose of faith. However, it is commendable to know the names of the Scriptures and the respective Messengers to whom these Scriptures were revealed.

The Muslims affirm the truthfulness of only those Scriptures, unconditionally, that have been nominated in the Holy Qur’an, including Torah, Zaboor (Psalms) and Injeel (Gospel). The Qur’an mentions that:

Torah was revealed to Moses (A.S)

Zaboor was revealed to David (A.S)

Injeel was revealed to Jesus the Christ (A.S)

The scriptures that have not been mentioned in the Holy Qur’an, like Zend Avesta (Zoroastrianism), Garanth Sahib (Sikhism), Vedas (Hinduism) etcetera are not believed to be the Divine Scriptures. It seems that these scriptures were written by the genius people who derived light from the true Divine Scriptures, but they could not avoid adding the contemporary views of their communities.

It is notable that the Bible (Old & New Testament) is not considered True Divine Scripture by most of the Muslim scholarship. The Holy Qur’an repeatedly mentions that the Jewish and Christian scholars amended the Scriptures that were revealed to Moses and Jesus (A.S). So the Bible does not represent the True Torah and Injeel. Though there are scattered patches of Divine Message in the Bible, but these are mixed with human works. It is not possible for a layman to judge between the true Divine Message and human works. That is why the Muslims are not required to study the Bible. However, scholars can study the Bible for comparison.

The Muslims are not in need of studying the Bible to know the teachings of the early Messengers. The Qur’an  is not only the summary of teachings of the earlier Messengers, but it adds a lot of knowledge and wisdom. It also decides the disputes caused by Children of Israel.

Indeed, this Qur’ān relates to the Children of Israel most of that over which they disagree

[Al-Qur’an, 27:76]

It is narrated on the authority of Jabir bin Abdullah (R.A) that the Prophet (peace and blessings of Allah be upon him) said: Do not ask the People of the Book about anything, because they can’t guide you, they have gone astray themselves, so you will either confirm falsehood or the truth, even if Musa (Moses) comes alive, nothing will be lawful for him, but that he follow me.

[Musnad Ahmad:H#14685]

This Hadith clearly indicates the possibility of truthfulness of a statement from distorted Scriptures, but a layman is not able to judge the truthfulness or falsehood of that statement. Hence, the Messenger (PBUH) forbade relying upon the People of the Book (Jews & Christians) while relating to theology. The Holy Qur’an suffices for our guidance.