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30 Excuses for Leaving the Friday and Congregational Prayers

In the Name of Allah---the Most Beneficent, the Most Merciful.
30 Excuses for Leaving the Friday and Congregational Prayers




30 Excuses for Leaving the Friday and Congregational Prayers

Al-Iqna'a is a famous book authored by Musa ibn Ahmad al-Hajjawi al-Hanbali, a prominent Hanbali jurist who lived in the 10th century. The book is a comprehensive manual of Hanbali fiqh (Islamic jurisprudence) that covers various topics related to acts of worship, transactions, family law, criminal law, and other aspects of Islamic life.

Al-Iqna'a is considered one of the most important and widely studied books in the Hanbali school of thought, and it has been a standard text for Hanbali students for centuries. The book is known for its clarity and organization, and it is praised for its adherence to the Hanbali methodology and its reliance on the Quran, Sunnah, and the opinions of early Hanbali scholars.

Here are given the 30 Excuses for Leaving the Friday and Congregational Prayers from Al-Iqna'a. It means these are the people who are exempted from the obligation of attending congregation for Friday and other Fardh prayers.


فصل ويعذر في ترك الجمعة والجماعة

1۔ مريض وخائف حدوثه أو زيادته أو تباطؤه ،فإن لم يتضرر بإتيانه راكبا أو محمولا أو تبرع أحد به لزمته الجمعة دون الجماعة إن لم يكن في المسجد

2۔ ومن هو ممنوع من فعلها كالمحبوس

3۔ ومن يدافع الأخبثين أو أحدهما

4۔ أو بحضرة طعام يحتاج إليه وله الشبع

5۔  أو خائف من ضياع ماله كغلة في بيادرها

6۔  ١و دواب أنعام لا حافظ لها غيره ونحوه

 7۔ أو تلفه كخبز في تنور وطبيخ على نار ونحوه

8۔  أو فواته كالضائع يدل به في مكان كمن ضاع له كيس

9۔  أو أبق له عبد وهو يرجو وجوده

10۔  أو قدم به من سهر إن لم يقف لأخذه ضاع ـ لكن قال المجد: ـ الأفضل ترك ما يرجو وجوده ويصلى الجمعة والجماعة ـ

11۔ أو ضرر فيه أو في معيشة يحتاجها

12۔ أو أطلق الماء على زرعه أو بستانه يخاف إن تركه فسدا

 13۔ وكان مستحفظا على شيء يخاف علیه إن ذهب وتركه كناطور بستان ونحوه

14۔  أو كان عريانا ولو يجد سترة أو لم يجد إلا ما يستر عورته فقط ونحوه

15۔  أو كان عريانا ولم يجد سترة أو لو يجد ما يستر عورته فقط ونحوه في غير جماعة عراه

16۔  أو خائف موت رفيقه أو قريبه ولا يحضره

17۔  أو لتمريضهما إن يكن عنده من يقوم مقامه

18۔  أو خائف على حريمه أو نفسه من ضرر أو سلطان ظالم أو سبع أو لص

19۔  أو ملازمه غريم أو حبسه بحق لا وفاء له

20۔  أو فوات رفقه مسافر سفرا مباحا منشئا أو مستديما

21۔ أو غلبه نعاس يخاف معه فوتها في الوقت أو مع الإمام والصبر والتجلد على دفع النعاس ويصلي معهم أفضل

22۔  أو تطويل إمام

23۔  أو من عليه قود إن رجا العفو ومثله حد قذف ومن عليه حد لله فلا يعذر به

24۔  أو متأذ بمطر

25۔ أو وحل

26۔ أو ثلج

27۔ أو جليد

28۔ أو ريح باردة في ليلة مظلمة ولو لم تكن الريح شديدة

29۔ والزلزلة عذر ـ قاله أبو المعالي

30۔ قال ابن عقيل: ومن له عروس تجلى عليه

.

1.     Leaving Jumuah (Friday prayers) and Jama’ah (congregational prayers) is permissible for a sick or one who fears of getting sick again, or one who is afraid of his condition worsening or slowing down of recovery. However, if he does not suffer harm by attending it while riding, or carried, or if someone offers to him for a lift then he should not leave Jumuah but can leave other congregational prayers. This applies even if he is not in the mosque.

2.    If he is forbidden from performing it, such as a prisoner,

3.    Someone who is hesitant for the call of nature,

4.    If he is present at a meal and needs it being hungry,

5.    He is afraid of losing his property, such as crops in his fields,

6.    Domestic animals that have no one else to look after them, or anything similar  

7.     If he is afraid of losing something like baking bread inside the earthly oven or meal being cooked on fire,

8.     If he fears of damage of something that he has experienced before

9.     If he hopes to find his lost slave/servant,

10.   If he expects the arrival of his merchandise and he is afraid of its damage if he goes to attend the congregation, however, Imam Abul Barakat Abdus-Salam Al-Majd said, "It is better to leave what he hopes to find and pray the Friday and congregational prayers.

11.     If there is any potential harm to himself or his livelihood that he needs

12.       If he needs to water his crops or garden and is afraid that it may spoil if left unattended

13.    If he is guarding something and he fears its loss if leaves it behind him like a caretaker of a garden, and so on,

14.         If he is naked, or he finds only a cover for his private parts,

15.                        If he is naked, and does not find even a cover for his private parts, or anything similar,

16.                        If he is afraid of the death of his close companion or relative, if he left him behind

17.                         If he is nursing them and has none to take his place,

18.                         If he is afraid for his own or his family's safety from harm, a tyrannical ruler, a beast, a rival, or unjust imprisonment.

19.                         If he is afraid of meeting the person who may demand his debt and he is unable to pay the debt,

20.                        If he is afraid of missing his companion who is traveling for a legitimate reason with him, whether occasionally or permanently,

21.                         If he is overwhelmed by drowsiness and is afraid of missing some pillars of prayer due to drowsiness, in time, or with Imam, while striving to resist sleep and pray with them is better,

22.                         If the imam (one who leads in prayer) prolongs the prayer,

23.                         If he has been sentenced to some punishment like punishment for propagating a sexual scandal, and he hopes  for forgiveness, if he stands there, however, this excuse is not for a person who is convicted in Hudud Allah,

24.                         If he is affected by heavy rain,

25.                        Hailstones,

26.                        Snow,

27.                         Ice,

28.                         Cold wind on a dark night, even if the wind is not strong,

29.                         Earthquake, said Abu al-Moali,

30.                         If he is going to attend his bride, said Ibn Aqil.

 [Musa ibn Ahmad al-Hajjawi al-Hanbali R,A, Al-Iqna’a:1/174-175]

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Sajid Mahmood Ansari
Research Scholar, Writer, Blogger

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