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Author: Sajid Mahmood Anasri
We discussed the structure of the universe in our previous article titled The Spiral Universe. We concluded that the universe is spinning on its axis like a giant spiral galaxy. We drew this conclusion on the basis of the Prophetic narrative and observational data. Now, this paper aims to give a brief history of the universe again with the help of observational data. In our paper Basics of the Muslim Cosmology, we spotted the light on the faith in creation in Islam and how the scientific theories progressed towards a universe that had an origin in the remote past. However, this paper aims to give an updated history of the spiral universe, from origin to present, based on Muslim Cosmology.
Allah Almighty says:
“Glorify the name of your Lord, the Exalted, Who created, then evolved. And Who programmed then guided.”
He says further:
“He, Whose is the kingdom of the heavens and the earth, and Who did not take to Himself a son, and Who has no associate in the kingdom, and Who created everything, so predetermined for it a measure.” 
Allah Almighty programmed the harmonic cosmos before its creation. The Qur’anic narratives and their explanation by the Messenger of Allah (May Allah shower His blessings and peace on him) show that the ‘Divine Programming’ is inscribed on a physical but non-material tablet named Lawh Mahfooz (Safeguarded Tablet), which lies above the seven heavens. The inscription of Divine Programming marks the beginning of time and space in Muslim Cosmology, while it happened 50000 heavenly years before the differentiation of the cosmos into seven heavens and the earth.
Abdullah b. 'Amr bin al-'As (May Allah be pleased with him) reported:
I heard Allah's Messenger (ﷺ) saying: Allah ordained the measures of the creation fifty thousand years before He created the heavens and the earth. 
The inscription in Lawh Mahfooz denotes the creation of light, as it has been reported in Tafsir Ibn Jarir at-Tabri that the Safeguarded Tablet is made of light. Actually, the Lawh Mahfooz was nothing but the appearance of an inscription in the form of light. The light inscribed Lawh Mahfooz is said to be Al-Qalam (The Pen) metaphorically, to make the concept conceivable.
Ubadah bin As-Samit (May Allah be pleased with him) reported:
‘I heard the Messenger of Allah (ﷺ) saying: “Verily the first of what Allah created was the Pen. He said to it: “Write.” So it wrote what will be forever.’”
So the creation of the Pen and the Safeguarded Tablet happened concurrently. This is why we say that the inscription on the Safeguarded Tablet denotes the beginning of space and time. The inscription might be a super-complex code that translated into the creation accordingly by the Will of the Almighty Lord.
Evolutionary Pattern in Creation
Almighty, all Knowing, Omnipotent Lord is capable of doing everything, even that which we never imagined. However, He generally creates in an evolutionary pattern, making things possible to comprehend.
We strictly believe in the following Qur’anic narrative:
“Glorify the name of your Lord, the Exalted, Who created, then evolved. And Who programmed then guided.”
It is explicitly mentioned in the Holy Qur’an that Almighty Allah created the cosmos in six consecutive phases or periods, as it follows:
Indeed your Lord is Allah Who created the heavens and the earth in six periods, then established Himself on the Throne. He makes the day and night overlap in rapid succession. He created the sun, the moon, and the stars—all subjected to His command. The creation and the command belong to Him ˹alone˺. Blessed is Allah—Lord of all worlds!
The creation of the cosmos in six consecutive phases does not violate any Divine Attribute, but it affirms His Chief Attribute Rabb; which renders the Lord Who transforms the simple things into complex and perfect order. So, there is no wonder that Allah Almighty created the cosmos in six lengthy periods.
It is worth mentioning that the Qur’an describes the relativity of time in clear words.
A Day with your Lord is like a thousand years in your reckoning.
So, when talking about the time period, particularly, in the account of Creation, one should be clear that the time period is referenced to the heavenly time, rather the lunar or solar days. Our next paper will address the relativity of time in sha Allah.
The eloquent and articulate way of expressing of the Holy Qur’an is extremely appreciable, particularly when it expresses the cosmic facts in comprehensive and specific words. It is the miraculous style of the Qur’an that expressed the origin of the cosmos through a single word ( الفلق Al-Falaq) that appears in the first Ayah of Surah Al-Falaq (Ch.113).
The Qur’an reads:
“Say, “I seek refuge in the Lord of Al-Falaq; from the evil of that which He created.” 
The Arabic construction Al-Falaq has been derived from the root ف ل ق renders to the meaning of breaking open or apart suddenly and violently, especially as a result of an impact or internal pressure. So the proper noun Al-Falaq holds the meaning of a specific burst or explosion. But it is not the whole story of Al-Falaq.
Al-Falaq refers to the intense Burst of Light that caused the creation of matter. It is not a far-fetched meaning for a biased intention. Abdullah bin Abbas (May Allah be pleased with them), a cousin and close companion of the last Messenger Muhammad (May He shower His blessings and peace on him), profoundly said:
“Al-Falaq refers to the creation.”
So Al-Falq refers to the dawn of the cosmos, meant for the appearance of the Primordial Light, in the form of a white hole-like singularity. A white hole is a spiraling pool of intense light with the strongest electromagnetic field. A group of astrophysicists assume that the Big Bang was the biggest white hole.
However, the white hole is a complement to a black hole theoretically. We don’t believe in the existence of a black hole prior to the Big Bang. No matter existed prior to this cosmic event, to create a black hole. Thence, the Primordial Light Energy was self-sustained and independent of any black hole-like structure. Then where did it come from? Obviously, it came out of Divine Programming.
The beginning of the cosmos from the Primordial Light is not merely an assumption, but strong scientific evidence supports this idea. Cosmic Microwave Background (CMB) radiation, scattered throughout space; is the preserved remnant light of the Primordial Light, which is considered a strong pillar of the Big Bang Theory as well. 
Seeds of Galaxies
We believe that the history of the early universe is preserved in the galaxies. According to the Spiral Universe model, originally proposed by the Prophet of Islam Muhammad (May Allah shower His peace and blessings on him), the galaxies evolved out of Primordial Light. The Spiraling Primordial Light gave off the galaxies in the form of Quasars (Quasi-Stellar Radio Sources). Actually, quasars are the seeds of the galaxies.
American space agency NASA introduces quasars as follows:
Quasars are farther away from Earth than any other known object in the universe. Because they are so far away from us, it takes billions of years for the light they give off to reach Earth. The light stays the same, it just has to travel a long time to get to us. When we look at a quasar, it is like we are looking back in time. The light we see today is what the quasar looked like billions of years ago. Some scientists think that when they study quasars they are studying the beginning of the universe.
Quasars give off huge amounts of energy. They can be a trillion times brighter than the Sun! Astronomers think that quasars are located in galaxies which have black holes at their centers. The black holes may provide quasars with their energy. Quasars are so bright that they drown out the light from all other stars in the same galaxy. The word quasar is short for quasi-stellar radio source. Quasars give off radio waves, X-rays, gamma rays, ultraviolet rays, and visible light. Most of them are larger than our solar system.
Sometimes, Active Galactic Nucleus (AGN) is treated as a synonym for quasars. European space agency ESA explains Active Galactic Nucleus while discussing the new image of a Quasars SDSS J165202.64+172852.3, recently sent by James Webb Space Telescope:
An AGN is a compact region at the center of a , which is emitting enough electromagnetic radiation to outshine all the galaxy’s stars. AGNs, including quasars, are powered by gas falling into a supermassive black hole at the center of their galaxy.
These incredible statements from NASA and ESA prove the validity of our idea that quasars are seeds of galaxies, from which a galaxy grow. The highly energetic Primordial Light caused to the production of quasars or the like objects which originally inherited the information from the Primordial Light. In our opinion, the reason behind the extraordinary luminosity of quasars or Active Galactic Nuclei is not the presence of a black hole, but it must be a white hole or something like a white hole. The information inherited from Primordial Light paved the way to create fundamental particles of matter, in all the Active Galactic Nuclei. Because all the Active Galactic Nuclei inherited the same information in the same conditions, that is why they all follow the same natural laws to create the same particles of matter.
Scientific data supports that the existence of a white hole in an Active Galactic Nucleus is no more a strange idea, as these objects emit gamma rays profoundly.
A group of researchers at Harvard University (USA) observes:
There is a new group of γ-ray bursts, which are relatively close to Earth, but surprisingly lack any supernova emission. We propose identifying these bursts with white holes. White holes seem like the best explanation for γ-ray bursts that appear in voids. We also predict the detection of rare gigantic γ-ray bursts with energies much higher than typically observed. 
Marcelo Samuel Berman, from Instituto Albert Einstein, Brazil, (March 2007) observed in his paper that the entire universe might be behaving like a white hole.
We have shown, in a different context than in Pathria’s paper (where p = 0, and Λ obeys certain conditions), that the closed Robertson-Walker’s Universe, with any value of p constrained to obey Einstein’s field equations, may be thought as being a white-hole.
In 1994, Ori and Poisson proposed that quasars might be white holes.
White holes were understood as the time reversal of black holes, and therefore, it was believed that they should persistently throw away matter, and be detected much easier than the dark black holes. Initially, white holes were even proposed as an explanation of the brightest objects in the universe - quasars and active galactic nuclei. It was concluded, however, that in white holes that continuously eject matter, a blue sheet of accreted highly accelerated matter will be formed at the event horizon of the white hole due to its gravitational force. 
Allah Almighty says:
He is the One Who created the heavens and the earth in six periods—and His Throne (Divine Kingdom) was upon the water—in order to test which of you is best in deeds.
As we mentioned in the paper Basics of the Muslim Cosmology, according to Muslim researchers the said water is not ordinary water (H2O), but it may refer to a peculiar Cosmic Fluid, which constitutes the fundamental building blocks of the matter. In our opinion, this Cosmic Fluid must be plasma.
Now some quasars have been reported to spew highly accelerated plasma as the following study observed.
Carnegie's Eduardo Bañados led a team that found a quasar with the brightest radio emission ever observed in the early universe, due to it spewing out a jet of extremely fast-moving material.
Bañados' discovery was followed up by Emmanuel Momjian of the National Radio Astronomy Observatory, which allowed the team to see with unprecedented detail the jet shooting out of a quasar that formed within the universe's first billion years of existence.
This newly discovered quasar, called PSO J352.4034-15.3373, is one of a rare breed that doesn't just swallow matter into the black hole but also emits a jet of plasma traveling at speeds approaching that of light. This jet makes it extremely bright in the frequencies detected by radio telescopes. Although quasars were identified more than 50 years ago by their strong radio emissions, now we know that only about 10 percent of them are strong radio emitters.
NASA confirmed this discovery:
Astronomers have discovered evidence for an extraordinarily long jet of particles coming from a supermassive black hole in the early universe, using NASA’s Chandra X-ray Observatory.
The source of the jet is a quasar – a rapidly growing supermassive black hole – named PSO J352.4034-15.3373 (PJ352-15 for short), which sits at the center of a young galaxy. It is one of the two most powerful quasars detected in radio waves in the first billion years after the big bang and is about a billion times more massive than the Sun.
A Russian astronomer, Yuri Kovalev, who heads the MIPT Laboratory of Fundamental and Applied Research of Relativistic Objects of the Universe, commented:
"The fact that jet radiation was polarized was known. We combined the data obtained by radio and optical telescopes and showed that the polarization is directed along the jet. The conclusion from this is that hot plasma must be moving in a magnetic field that is coiled like a spring."
These studies show that the quasars not only emitted light in the form of exceptional energy but converted light into plasma. However, most astronomers today link the quasars to a black hole instead of a white hole. This is really problematic and appears to be a result of some biased intentions.
In the 1950s, following the discovery of strong radio sources in external galaxies, Ambartsumian began studying clusters of galaxies and discovered that these too are unstable, thereby implying that galactic formation also is an ongoing process. In 1958, he gave a report to the Solvay Conference on Physics in Brussels in which he said that explosions in galactic nuclei cause large amounts of mass to be expelled. For these explosions to occur, galactic nuclei must contain bodies of huge masses of unknown nature. From this point forward Active Galactic Nuclei (AGN) became a key component in theories of galactic evolution.
According to Ambartsumian, an Active Galactic Nucleus expels out matter, which is a property of a white hole, instead of a black hole. This is what another Russian astronomer Anatoly V. Belyakov claims in his paper titled Are Quazars Whiteholes?
Another Russian astronomer I.D Novikov referenced Ambartsumian’s article Voprosy Kosmologii (originally published in the Russian language in 1962) and shared Ambartsumian’s conclusions in these words:
Recently, V.A. Ambartsumyan emphasized that considerable masses of matter and of relativistic particles could be ejected from the centers of galaxies and that the temperature phenomena in giant galaxies and radio galaxies is due to the activity of the galactic nuclei. 
Ambartsumian’s inferences indicate that the spewing of plasma by Active Galactic Nuclei or quasars is due to the presence of a white hole in the quasars, instead of a black hole. Russian astronomers and cosmologists generally agree with Ambartsumian, while on contrary to the US allies support Stephen Hawking’s viewpoint, who believed in the existence of a black hole in the center of massive galaxies. It means a ‘cold war’ continues among cosmologists. That is why I labeled it as a biased approach.
All galaxies originated as quasars and converted light energy into plasma. So plasma must be dubbed as Cosmic Fluid which is an ionized dense gas that flows like a perfect liquid. Plasma is the Ambartsumian’s pre-stellar material that forms stars.
Formation of Stars
Ambartsumian noted in his outstanding work, Theoretical Astrophysics:
It can hardly be doubted that the formation of stars in an earlier period in the life of the Galaxy took place through associations. Thus the process of the evolution of the Galaxy must be imagined as the gradual formation of groups of stars (i. c. associations) from the pre-stellar material.
So all the observed stars were not born simultaneously, but different groups of stars evolved at different times. This observation is confirmed by other astronomers and there is an agreement that in a particular galaxy different groups of stars are of different ages. Likewise, different stars have different lifespans depending on their mass, density, and luminosity. Star formation is not a spontaneous event, but it is a prolonged evolutionary process, that may spread over centuries.
It is generally believed that most active sites of star formation lie near the Active Galactic Nucleus. However, younger stars have also been located in spiral arms and on the outer regions of galaxies.
The Qur’an explicitly mentions that some gaseous materials are involved in the formation of the observable universe. Allah Almighty says:
“Then He turned to the (lowest) heaven while it looked like smoke. He said to the heaven and the earth: “Follow (the Divine Programming), willingly or unwillingly.” They said: “Here we follow in willing obeisance. Then He made them seven heavens in two days and revealed to each heaven its law. And We adorned the lower heaven with lamps and firmly secured it. All this is the firm programming of the All-Mighty, the All-Knowing”
Arabic connotation Dukhan refers to smoke that is produced by burning some fuel. Surprisingly, there is no word better than smoke to express the observed gaseous nebulae. We can easily conclude from this brilliant Qur’anic narrative that Dukhan (gaseous nebula) is directly involved in star formation by burning fuel of gases. It is noteworthy that planet formation is also mentioned in this narrative by pointing to the creation of the Earth. This narrative also indicates that there are some in-built conflicting forces in plasma that resist forming stars and planets eventually.
It is observed on large scales that usually a dense cloud of gas and dust is involved in the star formation which is known as a Giant Molecular Cloud.
Clare Dobbs, a researcher at the University of Exeter (UK), in his article Giant Clouds: Star Factories of the Galaxies:
Stars are forming in our galaxy at a rate of between 1 and 4 solar masses of stars
per year. In contrast to elliptical galaxies, which are largely devoid of star formation,
star formation is still going on in spiral galaxies because of their reservoirs of molecular
gas, the fuel for new stars. The discs of spiral galaxies are comprised not only of stars as we
clearly see from Earth, but also of gas (the interstellar medium, ISM). This is where this gas
accumulates into cold, dense, molecular regions known as molecular clouds, in which new stars
are formed. Most star formation occurs in massive molecular clouds, known as a giant molecule-
lar clouds (GMCs). However, while we have a good understanding of how individual stars form, there is less consensus on how their natal
clouds of gas accumulate, how long these clouds last, how star formation progresses over their
lifetime, and indeed how star formation has progressed over the lifetime of the Milky Way. What we do know about star formation in
nearby galaxies tells us that the rate of star formation is surprisingly low, but we do not know
why. In order to do this we need to study the evolution of the gas, and how it is turned into stars.
Understanding the formation and evolution of GMCs, though, is a formidable problem. One of the immediate challenges is the vast range of scales
between galaxies and protostellar discs, from ~10 kpcs across down to ~10–3
pc. Another dif- ﬁculty is the complex physics involved: gravity, magnetic ﬁelds, thermodynamics, turbulence, and stellar feedback all play roles. The ISM itself
is a multiphase medium of atomic, molecular, and ionized hydrogen spanning a range of them-
temperatures from 10 K to >10 8K, and many orders of magnitude in density
Stars are forming in our galaxy at a rate of between 1 and 4 solar masses of stars per year. In contrast to elliptical galaxies, which are largely devoid of star formation, star formation is still going on in spiral galaxies because of their reservoirs of molecular gas, the fuel for new stars. The discs of spiral galaxies are comprised not only of stars as we clearly see from Earth, but also gas (the interstellar medium, ISM). This is where this gas accumulates into cold, dense, molecular regions known as molecular clouds, in which new stars are formed. Most star formation occurs in massive molecular clouds, known as giant molecular clouds (GMCs). However, while we have a good understanding of how individual stars form, there is less consensus on how their natal clouds of gas accumulate, how long these clouds last, how star formation progresses over their lifetime, and indeed how star formation has progressed over the lifetime of the Milky Way. What we do know about star formation in nearby galaxies tells us that the rate of star formation is surprisingly low, but we do not know why. In order to do this we need to study the evolution of the gas, and how it is turned into stars. Understanding the formation and evolution of GMCs, though, is a formidable problem. One immediate challenge is the vast range in scales between galaxies and protostellar discs, from ~10 kpcs across down to ~10–3 pcs. Another dif-ﬁculty is the complex physics involved: gravity, magnetic ﬁelds, thermodynamics, turbulence, and stellar feedback all play roles. The ISM itself is a multiphase medium of atomic, molecular, and ionized hydrogen spanning a range of temperatures from 10 K to >108 K, and many orders of magnitude in density.
We cited this lengthy paragraph deliberately from Dobb’s work to inform the readers what we know all about star formation briefly. This paragraph is a good summary of the star formation process. It also differentiates the factual data and hypothetical explanations of the process involved. Actually, we know little about the details of the star formation process. Star formation, despite the latest advancements in astrophysics and far-reaching space telescopes, remains still a mystery for astronomers.
However, recent findings confirm that electromagnetic force plays an important role in star formation.
American Astronomical Society observes:
The formation of Giant Molecular Clouds (GMCs) is a poorly understood step in the star formation process. Magnetic fields may play a role in GMC formation. We report the results of an observational study of magnetic fields in GMCs and in the less dense interstellar regions that surround them.
Center for Astrophysics, at Harvard University (USA), observes:
Previous observations with other telescopes found that magnetic fields surrounding some young protostars form a classic "hourglass" shape – a hallmark of a strong magnetic field – that starts near the protostar and extends many light-years into the surrounding cloud of dust and gas.
By comparing the structure of the magnetic field in the observations with cutting-edge supercomputer simulations on multiple scales, astronomers gained important insights into the earliest stages of magnetized star formation. 
The well-known magazine for scientific articles, Nature mentions a study related to the helical magnetic field discovered in a giant molecular cloud L 1641 located in Orion Nebula:
Using the Nagoya telescope, Uchida et al. found an unusual helical filamentary structure, spinning about its long axis, in the L1641 cloud in the Orion cloud complex. Noting that this structure is consistent with a helically twisted magnetic field inferred from optical polarization observations, they argued that the helical filament is a manifestation of torsional magnetohydrodynamic (Alfvén) waves draining angular momentum from a nearby massive cloud, thus promoting collapse and star formation. 
David Spergel, a renowned theoretical astrophysicist and current president of the Simons Foundation in New York, explains the existence of mature galaxies shortly after the Big Bang:
“I think what we’re seeing is that high-mass star formation is very efficient in the early universe,” he says. “The gas pressures are higher. The temperatures are higher. That has an enormous impact on the environment for star formation.” Perhaps even magnetic fields arose earlier in the universe than we thought, playing a crucial role in driving material to kick-start the birth of stars. “We might be seeing a signature of magnetic fields emerging very early in the universe’s history,” 
All these observations indicate the correlation of the magnetic field in the star formation. More recent studies suggest that magnetic fields not only play a role in star formation but might be responsible for the spiral structure of the galaxies.
Evolution of Spiral Galaxies
Observationally, studies have found that spiral galaxies tend to be more common in the present-day universe, while elliptical galaxies are more prevalent in dense galaxy clusters. This observation is consistent with the idea that spiral galaxies formed earlier when the universe was less clustered and interactions were less frequent. As the universe evolved and structures like galaxy clusters formed, mergers and interactions became more common, leading to the formation of elliptical galaxies.
According to this model, spiral galaxies can form through the accretion of gas and the conservation of angular momentum, leading to the formation of rotating disks with spiral arms. As galaxies continue to evolve and interact, mergers can occur, resulting in the transformation of spiral galaxies into elliptical galaxies.
Interestingly, all the observed galaxies are not of the same age, but different types are of different ages. European Space Agency (ESA) observes:
Current thinking amongst astronomers is that most elliptical galaxies formed from the collisions and subsequent mergers of spiral galaxies. The typical ages of the stellar populations of elliptical and spiral galaxies provide evidence for this theory because the stars in elliptical galaxies are typically much older and redder than those in spiral galaxies. Whilst spiral galaxies have rich reservoirs of the dust and gas that fuel star formation, elliptical galaxies appear to have virtually exhausted that fuel, and so there is very little raw material for the formation of new stars. Therefore, it seems likely that elliptical galaxies are largely populated by stars that formed within active spiral galaxies. Due to their very low rate of star formation and their populations of old, red stars, elliptical galaxies are sometimes colloquially referred to as ‘red and dead’ by astronomers. 
Whatever the way of aging the galaxies, whether spiral galaxies fused to form elliptical galaxies or each spiral galaxy evolved into an elliptical galaxy individually; spiral patterns can be traced back in all types of galaxies. This observation leads us to conclude without any doubt that a spiral pattern is the origin of all the galaxies.
The idea that the spiral pattern might be the original pattern of galaxies is certainly intriguing and has been the subject of scientific investigation. While it is an interesting hypothesis, it is important to note that it is still a matter of scientific debate and ongoing research.
The spiral pattern is indeed observed in many galaxies, including the Milky Way, and it has been studied extensively. Spiral arms are thought to form through density waves propagating through the galactic disk, triggering star formation and creating the characteristic spiral structure. This process has been observed in simulations and can account for the formation of spiral patterns in galaxies.
To determine the origin of the spiral pattern in galaxies, researchers use a combination of observations, simulations, and theoretical models. They aim to understand the initial conditions of the universe, the dynamics of matter, and the processes that shape galaxies over cosmic time.
NASA observed in December 2019, pointing to the formation of spiral galaxies:
“Magnetic fields are invisible, but they may influence the evolution of a galaxy,” said Enrique Lopez-Rodriguez, a Universities Space Research Association scientist at the SOFIA Science Center at NASA’s Ames Research Center in California’s Silicon Valley. “We have a pretty good understanding of how gravity affects galactic structures, but we’re just starting to learn the role magnetic fields play.”
They go further:
SOFIA’s infrared observations reveal what human eyes cannot: magnetic fields that closely follow the newborn star-filled spiral arms. This supports the leading theory of how these arms are forced into their iconic shape known as “density wave theory.” It states that dust, gas, and stars in the arms are not fixed in place like blades on a fan. Instead, the material moves along the arms as gravity compresses it, like items on a conveyor belt.
The magnetic field alignment stretches across the entire length of the massive, arms — approximately 24,000 light-years across. This implies that the gravitational forces that created the galaxy’s spiral shape are also compressing its magnetic field, supporting the density wave theory. The results are published in the Astrophysical Journal.
an astrophysicist from Max Planck Society
Germany starts his article Magnetic fields in the nearby spiral galaxy IC 342: A multi-frequency
radio polarization study (February
2015) with these words:
Magnetic fields play an important role in the formation and stabilization of spiral structures in galaxies, but the interaction between interstellar gas and magnetic fields has not yet been understood. In particular, the phenomenon of “magnetic arms” located between material arms is a mystery.
Observational data shows that spiral galaxies are the earliest galaxies ever found. It means spiral galaxies are believed to grow primarily through the accretion of gas, which can fuel the formation of new stars. As the galaxy grows, its gravitational pull can also attract smaller galaxies, leading to mergers and the formation of larger galaxies.
Evolution of Lenticular Galaxies
Evolution of Elliptical Galaxies
When two spirals collide, they lose their familiar shape, morphing into less-structured elliptical galaxies. Born from collision, elliptical galaxies are more commonly found around clusters and groups of galaxies. They are less frequently spotted in the early universe, which supports the idea that they evolved from the collisions that came later in the life of a galaxy.
The Fate of Spiral Galaxies
Transformation into an Elliptical Galaxy:
Sustaining as a Spiral Galaxy:
Transition into a Lenticular Galaxy:
Disruption or Cannibalization:
 Al Qur’an, 87:1-3
 Al Qur’an, 25:2
 Al Qur’an, 87:1-3
 Al-Qur’an, 7:54
 Al-Qur’an, 22:47
 Al-Qur’an, 113:1-2
 Abu Muhammad Abd-ur-Rahman bin Abu Hatim Ar-Razi, Tafseer Ibni Abi Hatim, H.19538
 Al-Qur’an, 11:7
 V.A. Ambartsumian, Theoretical Astrophysics, p.517, Pergamon Press, New York,1958
 Al-Qur’an, 41:11