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In the Name of ALLAH, the Beneficent, the Merciful. Author :Sajid Mahmood Ansari Introduction: All praise is due to ALLAH and His blessi...

Showing posts with label Adam. Show all posts
Showing posts with label Adam. Show all posts

Monday, May 31, 2021

Tracing Back Our Global Past

 

Human genome



TRACING BACK OUR GLOBAL PAST

Author: Sajid Mahmood Ansari

Creation of Man

Contrary to Darwinism, Islam believes that the first human couple was created especially by the Lord of the Worlds--Allah Almighty in the heavenly Paradise and sent down to the earth thousands of years ago. Scientifically speaking, it was the first couple of Homo sapiens, perfect in all human characteristics, including speaking and walking erectly. Adam (peace be upon him) and his wife Hawa (Eve) constituted the first human couple. They were the Prime ancestors of all the human beings, living today, the deceased and the going to be begotten in future.

Allah Almighty said:

 (Remember) when your Lord said to the angels: "Truly, I am going to create man from clay".

So when I have fashioned him and breathed into him (his) soul created by Me, then you fall down prostrate to him." So the angels prostrated themselves, all of them.[1]

This narrative has been dealt in details in Surah Al-Baqarah and Al-a’araf. Surah Al-Baqarah goes this way:

 And (remember) when your Lord said to the angels: "Verily, I am going to appoint a vicegerent on earth." They said: "Will You place therein those who will make mischief therein and shed blood, - while we glorify You with praises and thanks (Exalted be You above all that they associate with You as partners) and sanctify You." He (Allah) said: "I know that which you do not know." And He taught Adam all the names (of everything) , then He showed them to the angels and said, "Tell Me the names of these if you are truthful." They (angels) said: "Glory be to You, we have no knowledge except what you have taught us. Verily, it is You, the All-Knower, the All-Wise." He said: "O Adam! Inform them of their names," and when he had informed them of their names, He said: "Did I not tell you that I know the Ghaib (unseen) in the heavens and the earth, and I know what you reveal and what you have been concealing?" And (remember) when We said to the angels: "Prostrate yourselves before Adam.". And they prostrated except Iblis (Satan), he refused and was proud and was one of the disbelievers (disobedient to Allah). And We said: "O Adam! Dwell you and your wife in the Paradise and eat both of you freely with pleasure and delight of things therein as wherever you will, but come not near this tree or you both will be of the Zalimun (wrong-doers)." Then the Shaitan (Satan) made them slip therefrom (the Paradise), and got them out from that in which they were. We said: "Get you down, all, with enmity between yourselves. On earth will be a dwelling place for you and an enjoyment for a time. Then Adam received from his Lord Words . And his Lord pardoned him (accepted his repentance). Verily, He is the One Who forgives (accepts repentance), the Most Merciful. We said: "Get down all of you from this place (the Paradise), then whenever there comes to you Guidance from Me, and whoever follows My Guidance, there shall be no fear on them, nor shall they grieve.[2]

These two accounts of human creation taken from the Holy Qur’an proves that first human couple was sent down from the heaven on the earth. Humans have not been evolved from apes as the Neo-Darwinists believe. The human like species, taken as imperfect humans, were nothing but extinct species of apes, that are wrongly considered humans.

Sources of  Human Genealogy

The anthropologists have been trying to link the human races and classifying them on the basis of similarities and differences. No doubt it is not a childish game to classify human beings and tracing back their genealogy. Fortunately, there are five available sources that can help in this regard. Firstly, the recorded human history, folklores and oral traditions provide major raw material to sketch the whole human inheritance. Secondly, the history of languages, their origin and evolution plays important role in linking the races together. Thirdly, geographical distribution of human races is a key to classify the human beings on the basis of similarities and differences. Fourthly, modern scientific data resulting from latest research on human genomes provide the strong and bold colours to paint the human genealogy structure exactly. Last but not the least, archeological discoveries and data collected from archeological sites gives the finest tuning to the human history and finally the human genealogy. We use these sources to construct human genealogy compendium.

Tarim Mummies


The Muslims believe that the Qur’an is the Divine Revelation and the Ultimate Truth. It gives the guiding principles for tracing back and linking human genealogy. Fortunately, the Prophetic explanation of the Qur’an has been preserved in the form of Hadiths collections. In addition to these Islamic sources, the Jewish and Christian scriptures Old Testament and New Testament, serve as a tool for the comparative study.

Progeny of Adam (Peace be upon him)

Allah Almighty said:

O mankind! Be dutiful to your Lord, Who created you from a single person (Adam), and from him (Adam) He created his wife [Hawwa (Eve)], and from them both He created many men and women and fear Allah through Whom you demand your mutual (rights), and (do not cut the relations of) the wombs (kinship) . Surely, Allah is Ever an All-Watcher over you.[3]

Muhammad bin Ishaq reported that Hawa gave birth to forty kids for Adam (Peace be upon him) in twenty deliveries, each of the birth consisted of a set of twin boy and girl. [4]

Adam (Peace be upon him) lived around 1000 years. In his last years of life he moved to northern Arabia and laid the foundation stone of Palestine and constructed Masjid Ala-Aqsa.[5]

Among Adam’s progeny three sons are well known in Abrahamic religions, Shith (Seth), Habil (Abel) and Qabil (Cain). Muhammad bin Ishaq reported that all the humans living today are descendants of Shith (Peace be upon him). Abu Dhar (May Allah be pleased with him) reported from the Messenger of Allah that Shith (Peace be upon him) was the Prophet of Allah like his father and fifty scrolls were revealed to him.[6]

The most reliable report regarding Adam’s grave is narrated by Ibni Jarir At-Tabri that tells that Adam’s grave lies at Palestine in the Baitul Maqdas (Jerusalem).

Prophet Noah (Peace be upon him) and Deluge

After Adam’s death, the most eminent figure that appears in the Qur’an is the Prophet

Noah (Peace be upon him), who was descendant of Shith bin Adam (Peace be upon them).

It is well known that Prophet Noah (Peace be upon him) preached Taoheed (monotheism) for hundreds of years, but only a small number of people (40 to 80) responded to his call positively. Allah Almighty caused the Arabian Sea, Mediterranean Sea and Red Sea to raise the ocean level in addition with continuous thunder storm and down pour, resulted in a cataclysm that affected the whole human race, probably, that was confined to Arabian Peninsula at that time. The believers got into the Noah’s Arc and the disbelievers were wiped out from the surface of the earth. When water level returned to its normal position, the believers settled again in northern part of Arabian Peninsula.

Noah's Arch


The purpose of this paper is not the account of Prophetic stories, so I will mention only the incidents that are directly related to our subject i.e Cradle of Civilization. An overwhelming majority of human beings believe in the Global Deluge, of which a very small number of people survived. They were the forefathers of the next generations. However, it is believed that all living human beings are descendants of Noah’s progeny.

Progeny of Noah

Allah Almighty said:

And indeed Nuh (Noah) invoked Us, and We are the Best of those who answer (the request). And We rescued him and his family from the great distress (i.e. drowning), And, his progeny, them We made the survivors.[7]

This Qur’anic narrative clearly mentions that only Noah’s progeny could survive to the day. In other words all human beings living today are progeny of Noah (Peace be upon him). This Qur’anic narrative is elaborated in a reliable Prophetic tradition as follows:

Samurah bin Jundub (May Allah be pleased with him) reported that the Prophet () said: "Sam was the father of Arabs, Ham the father of the Ethiopians (Africans), and Yafith the father of the Romans (Europeans)."[8]

Noah's Progeny


This great Prophetic narrative is a key to sketch the human linage, as well as human history. When we compare this Hadith with recorded human history, fossil record and human genetics, we find that the Arabian Peninsula was the place where earliest human activities have been recorded, and it is the place from where humans migrated to neighbouring lands (Europe and Africa),as Arabian Peninsula lies at the junction of Asia, Europe and Africa. Though the Neo-Darwinist anthropologists claim that Africa was the place where ancestors of modern humans (Homo erectus) originated and then migrated to Arabian Peninsula, but in reality, so called Homo erectus was an African human race, which descended from Yafith (Jafith). The fossil record is still imperfect and more mysteries are buried under the soil, especially  under the sands of Arabian desert.

Noah's Settlement

Descendants of Sam

As it has been mentioned in the Prophetic narrative, Sam was the forefather of Arabs. The historians, from ancient times, have been using the term Semite and Semitic people for the earliest Descendants of Sam.

Encyclopaedia Brittanica obersves:

Semite, member of a people speaking any of a group of related languages presumably derived from a common language, Semitic (see Semitic languages). The term came to include Arabs, Akkadians, Canaanites, Hebrews, some Ethiopians, and Aramaean tribes. Mesopotamia, the western coast of the Mediterranean, the Arabian Peninsula, and the Horn of Africa have all been proposed as possible sites for the prehistoric origins of Semitic-speaking peoples, but no location has been definitively established.

Arabian Peninsula


By 2500 BCE Semitic-speaking peoples had become widely dispersed throughout western Asia. In Phoenicia they became seafarers. In Mesopotamia they blended with the civilization of Sumer.[9]

Famous historian Philip Khuri Hitti observes in The Arabia: A Short History:

The people of Arabia particularly Bedouins, have remained virtually the same throughout all recorded ages. And it was in Arabia that the ancestors of the Semitic peoples—the Babylonians, the Assyrians, the Chaldeans, Amorites, Aramaeans, the Phoenicians, Hebrews, Arabians and the Assyrian --- had their origin. Here they lived sometimes as one people.[10]

The Editors of ‘Encyclopedia of the Peoples of the Africa and the Middle East’ observes:

The most generally, but by no means exclusively, accepted hypothesis is that the original homeland of Semites was the Arabian Peninsula. The Semitic traditions, the historical sources, and ethnological data all point to Arabia as being the place from whwere the various Semitic peoples radiated. Arabia also constituted what is known as “Sheltered Area” with limited communication with the outside world and fewer external influences on its language and people than other areas of Semitic region. Hence the Nomadic Beduins’ way of life and the Arabic language remained relatively untouched and preserved in the Arabian Peninsula for long periods of time. It is also considered to be a law of history that people who practice agriculture do not revert to nomadic ways of life.[11]

This is what the majority of historians believe.

Elam the Son of Sam

Elamhas been reported as direct descendant of Sam both in Islamic and Hebrew literature. In, pre-Persia history, Elamite was a dominant culture in Persia, that represents the Sam’s descendants who migrated to Near East, along North-eastern side of the Zagros mountains (modern Iran).

Elam


Encyclopaedia Brittanica obersves:

Elam, Elamite Ḥaltami, Akkadian Elamtu, also called Susiana, ancient country in southwestern Iran approximately equivalent to the modern region of Khūzestān. Four prominent geographic names within Elam are mentioned in ancient sources: AwanAnshan, Simash, and Susa. Susa was Elam’s capital, and in classical sources the name of the country is sometimes Susiana. Throughout the late prehistoric periods, Elam was closely tied culturally to Mesopotamia. [12]

This fact leads us to conclude that the Persian people are originally descendants of Sam.

Imam Hammam bin Munabbih and Sayeed bin al-Musayeb R.A did mention that Persians are descendants of Sam. [13]

So the Semitic peoples migrated from the Arabian Peninsula to inhabit other continents.

Kosh bin Ham

According to the aforementioned Hadith about Descendants of Noah (A.S), Ham was the chief ancestor of the African peoples. The descendants of Kosh bin Ham (a grandson of Noah) are said to be Koshites (also spelled as Cushites). We can prove that the Cushites migrated to Africa and they developed Cushitic language that is said to be a subgroup of Semitic languages, due to its close relationship with Arabic.

Ethiopia


The Cushitic peoples (or Cushites) are a grouping of people who are primarily indigenous to Northeast Africa (Nile Valley and Horn of Africa) and speak or have historically spoken Cushitic languages or Ethiosemitic languages of the Afroasiatic language family. Cushitic languages are spoken today primarily in the Horn of Africa (DjiboutiEritreaEthiopia and Somalia), as well as the Nile Valley (Sudan-South Sudan and Egypt), and parts of the African Great Lakes region (Tanzania and Kenya) while the Ethiosemitic languages are spoken in the Horn of Africa and sparsely in the Nile Valley.[14]

Younan bin Yafith

A grandson of Noah (A.S) Younan bin Yafith is known as Yawan (Javan) by the Biblical scholarship. The well-known Jewish historian Yosef ben Matityahu (Titus Flavius Josephus) rightly believed that Younan (Yawan) was the ancestor of the Greeks.

According to Josephus (Antiquities of the Jews I.6):

Japhet, the son of Noah, had seven sons: they inhabited so, that, beginning at the mountains Taurus and Amanus, they proceeded along Asia, as far as the river Tanais (Don), and along Europe to Cadiz; and settling themselves on the lands which they light upon, which none had inhabited before, they called the nations by their own names.[15]

We can conclude from this quote that the descendants of Yafith (Japeth) migrated to the Anatolian region from Arabian Peninsula and inhabited around the Taurus mountain (present Turkey). Later on, they moved to neighbouring islands located in Ionian sea including Greece and Cyprus.

Greece


Wikipedia observes:

Greek colonies and communities have been historically established on the shores of the Mediterranean Sea and Black Sea, but the Greek people have always been centered on the Aegean and Ionian seas, where the Greek language has been spoken since the Bronze Age.[16]

It has been recorded that Greeks have used Abjad (Arabic alphabets) that were used to write Northwest Semitic languages, more specifically early PhoenicianMoabiteAmmoniteEdomiteHebrew and Old Aramaic.

This was a characteristic of the Bronze age. Using Abjad for writing in Greece shows a close relationship between the Arabs and Greece people in the ancient time. The well-known Greek language was derived from the same Abjad.

In Hebrew literature, Younan (Yawan) has been frequently used for Greece. Even the same practice has been recorded in in Ancient Persian and Indian languages like Sanskrit.[17]All these facts prove the truthfulness of the Qur’anic narratives and the Prophetic Traditions.

 



[1] Al-Qur’an, [38:71-73]

 

[2] Al-Qur’an, [2:30-38]

 

[3] Al-Qur’an, [4:1]

[4] Ibni Kathir, Al-Bidayah wan Nihayah:1/224

[5] Muhammad bin Yousuf Al-Shami, Subulul Huda war Rushad: 1/168

[6] Ibni Kathir, Al-Bidayah wan Nihayah:1/230

 

[7] Al-Qur’an, [37:75-77]

[8] Musnad Imam Ahmad:H.20369, Jami at-Tirmidhi:H.3231

 

[10] Philip Khuri Hitti, The Arabia: A Short History, p.7

[11]Encyclopedia of the Peoples of the Africa and the Middle East, p.621

[13] Sunan al-Bayhaqi

 

Monday, January 4, 2021

Arabian Peninsula: The Cradle of Humanity

Arabia




 

ARABIAN PENINSULA:
THE CRADLE OF HUMANITY

Arabian Peninsula:

Arabia or the Arabian subcontinent is a peninsula in Southwest Asia at the junction of Africa, Europe and Asia. The seas off the coast of the Arabian Peninsula are, on the west the Red Sea and the Gulf of Aqaba, on the northwest Mediterranean sea, on the southeast the Arabian Sea (part of the Indian Ocean), and on the northeast, the Gulf of Oman, the Strait of Hormuz, and the Arabian Gulf. It lies between 32o E to 60oE  and 13o N to 40o N. The Arabian Island extends Northward up to foothills of Taurus Mountains and Zagros Mountains.[1] Since the  early Islamic years, the peninsula has been called Jazira-tul-Arab ( Arabian Island), as it is surrounded by the sea in three sides and has a short range of land connection to the Asia Minor and Persian land, only in the north. Geologically, the whole land mass existing on the Arabian Plate composes Arabian Peninsula. [2]

Arabia


Makkah: The Mother of Towns

The History of Makkah is as old as the human’s history. The Arabian Peninsula has not only been a center of civilizations but the Cradle of Humanity. It is the place where first human couple Adam and Hawa (Peace be upon them) settled in the valley of Makkah, surrounded by As-Sirat mountains of Hijaz, at a distance of 50 miles from the Red Sea. It was the site where first human structure was erected in the shape of an asylum named Baitullah.

Verily, the first House (of worship) appointed for mankind was that at Bakkah (Makkah), full of blessing, and a guidance for Al-Alamin (the mankind and jinns).  [3]

Baitullah


Abu Dharr ( May Allah be pleased with him) reported:

I said: Messenger of Allah (May Allah shower His blessings and peace on him), which mosque was set up first on the earth? He said: Al-Masjid al-Haram (the sacred). I (again) said: Then which next? He said: It was the Masjid Aqsa. I (again) said: How long the space of time (between their setting up)? He (the Holy Prophet) said: It was forty years. And whenever the time comes for prayer, pray there, for that is a mosque; and in the hadith transmitted by Abu Kamil (the words are):" Whenever time comes for prayer, pray, for that is a mosque (for you)."

[Sahih Muslim:H.520]

Makkah


Abdullah bin Amr bin Al-Aas (May Allah be pleased with him) reported that the Messenger of Allah (May Allah shower His blessings and peace on him) told that Allah Almighty sent Jibreel A.S to Adam (Peace be upon him) and commanded him to construct a House of Worship for Him. So they constructed Baitullah (Al-Ka’abah).

[Musannaf Abdur Rzzaq, Tafsir Ibni Kathir)

So we can conclude from these reports that Adam and Hawa constructed the Baitullah first time. Definitely, this House of Worship was constructed for worshipping Allah Almighty. It was not constructed just for erecting a monument. Thence Adam and Hawa should have settled in Arabian Peninsula, to serve this asylum and circumambulate around it.

The Holy Qur’an declares Makkah as Ummul Qura, that literally means ‘the Mother of Towns’. This term indicates that Makkah was the first human settlement on the earth.



Allah Almighty said:

And thus We have inspired unto you (O Muhammad ) a Qur'an (in Arabic) that you may warn the Mother of the Towns (Makkah) and all around it. [4]

The earliest human activities in central Arabian Peninsula (mostly Saudi Arabia) have been recorded in archeological sites in Saudi Arabia.

A Sci-News magazine, published an awesome news about 120000 years old footprints in Nafud desert (Saudi Arabia) on Sep 21, 2020.

An international team of archaeologists and paleoanthropologists has found ancient human and animal footprints on the surface of an ancient lakebed in the Nefud Desert, Saudi Arabia. The footprints, dated to roughly 120,000 years ago, are contemporaneous with an early Homo sapiens out-of-Africa migration and represent the earliest evidence of our species in the Arabian Peninsula.

The researchers recorded a total of 376 fossilized footprints at the Alathar freshwater paleolake site in the western Nefud Desert.

“We immediately realized the potential of these findings,” said first author Dr. Mathew Stewart, a scientist in the Max Planck Institutes for Chemical Ecology, the Science of Human History, and Biogeochemistry.[5]

A well-known reporter of scientific findings, Sci-News reports:

An international team of archaeologists and paleoanthropologists has found fossil faunal remains and associated stone tools at the middle Pleistocene (300,000-500,000 years ago) locality of Ti’s al Ghadah in the Nefud Desert of Saudi Arabia. The discovery, reported in the journal Nature Ecology & Evolution, shows that hominins were present in the Arabian Peninsula at least 100,000 years earlier than previously known.[6]

Another website Science Direct observes:

In recent years, the Arabian Peninsula has emerged as a key region for elucidating hominin and faunal evolution and dispersals between Africa and Eurasia. Central to this research is the middle Pleistocene site of Ti's al Ghadah (TAG) which has yielded a diverse and abundant fossil faunal assemblage and the earliest chronometrically dated evidence for hominins in this part of the world.[7]



The well-known scientific research magazine Nature observes:

Despite its largely hyper-arid and inhospitable climate today, the Arabian Peninsula is emerging as an important area for investigating Pleistocene hominin dispersals. Recently, a member of our own species was found in northern Arabia dating to ca. 90 ka, while stone tools and fossil finds have hinted at an earlier, middle Pleistocene, hominin presence.[8]

These lengthy paragraphs from scientific sources prove that human beings have been living  in Arabian Peninsula for 120000 years. The so called out of Africa Human existence is confirmed for Arabian Peninsula.

Makkah has been a center of trade from the time of antiquity. It was located on the World Trade Route, that connected Middle East, India, Far East and Europe. Even before the advent of Islam, there was a time when the Arabs, particularly, Quraish of Makkah, had taken control over the land trade of spices from South Arabia to the Mediterranean Sea. Wikipedia observes:

In the first millennium BC the ArabsPhoenicians, and Indians were engaged in sea and land trade in luxury goods such as spices, gold, precious stones, leather of rare animals, ebony and pearls. The sea trade was in the Red Sea and the Indian Ocean. The sea route in the Red Sea was from Bab-el-Mandeb to Berenike and from there by land to the Nile and then by boats to Alexandria. The land trade was in deserts of Western Arabia using camels. In the second half of the first millennium BC the Arab tribes of South and West Arabia took control over the land trade of spices from South Arabia to the Mediterranean Sea.[9]

 


The cargos under these conditions were shipped to Aden (South Arabia) and carried to the Roman Empire through Levant on camels. Wikipedia observes:

The Periplus Maris Erythraei mentions a time when sea trade between Egypt and the subcontinent did not involve direct sailings. The cargo under these situations was shipped to Aden:

Aden – Arabia Eudaimon was called the fortunate, being once a city, when, because ships neither came from India to Egypt nor did those from Egypt dare to go further but only came as far as this place, it received the cargoes from both, just as Alexandriareceives goods brought from outside and from Egypt.

— Gary Keith Young, Rome's Eastern Trade: International Commerce and Imperial Policy[10]

Pliny the Elder complained the drainage of Roman wealth to Arabian Peninsula in these words (translated from Latin):

India, China and the Arabian peninsula take one hundred million sesterces from our empire per annum at a conservative estimate: that is what our luxuries and women cost us. For what fraction of these imports is intended for sacrifices to the gods or the spirits of the dead?

— Pliny, Historia Naturae 12.41.84  [11]

These references from European historians are sufficient to prove that Makkah enjoyed the maritime trade between India and Roman Empire, by playing a key role in the world trade.

It shows that Makkah has been an important trade station from the time immemorial. This fact leads us to conclude that Makkah has been one of the oldest towns of the world. Hence it supports the Qur’anic narrative ‘Verily, the first House (of worship) appointed for mankind was that at Bakkah (Makkah)’.

Famous historian Philip Khuri Hitti observes in The Arabia: A Short History:

The people of Arabia particularly Bedouins, have remained virtually the same throughout all recorded ages. And it was in Arabia that the ancestors of the Semitic peoples—the Babylonians, the Assyrians, the Chaldeans, Amorites, Aramaeans, the Phoenicians, Hebrews, Arabians and the Assyrian --- had their origin. Here they lived sometimes as one people.[12]

The Editors of ‘Encyclopedia of the Peoples of the Africa and the Middle East’ observes:

The most generally, but by no means exclusively, accepted hypothesis is that the original homeland of Semites was the Arabian Peninsula. The Semitic traditions, the historical sources, and ethnological data all point to Arabia as being the place from whwere the various Semitic peoples radiated. Arabia also constituted what is known as “Sheltered Area” with limited communication with the outside world and fewer external influences on its language and people than other areas of Semitic region. Hence the Nomadic Beduins’ way of life and the Arabic language remained relatively untouched and preserved in the Arabian Peninsula for long periods of time. It is also considered to be a law of history that people who practice agriculture do not revert to nomadic ways of life.[13]

This is what the majority of historians believe.



Agricultural Revolution

The earliest farming activities have been reported from Arabian Peninsula. These reports prove that Arabian Peninsula was the Cradle of Civilization.

The Neolithic Revolution, also called the Agricultural Revolution, marked the transition in human history from small, nomadic bands of hunter-gatherers to larger, agricultural settlements and early civilization. The Neolithic Revolution started around 10,000 B.C. in the Fertile Crescent, a boomerang-shaped region of the Middle East where humans first took up farming.[14]

It is notable that the Fertile Crescent is located in the northern part of Arabian Peninsula.



Domestication of Livestock

Again, Arabian Peninsula is the site where humans domesticated the wild animals to avoid all time hunting adventures.

The first livestock were domesticated from animals that Neolithic humans hunted for meat. Domestic pigs were bred from wild boars, for instance, while goats came from the Persian ibex. Domesticated animals made the hard, physical labor of farming possible while their milk and meat added variety to the human diet.[15]

The first farm animals also included sheep and cattle. These originated in Mesopotamia between 10,000 and 13,000 years ago. Water buffalo and yak were domesticated shortly after in ChinaIndia and Tibet.[16]

Migrations from Arabian Peninsula to Neighbouring Lands

Darwinists claim that the prime ancestors of Homo sapiens (pre-human species) lived in Africa around 200000 years ago. They hypothesized two terms Mitochondrial Eve and Y-Chromosomal Adam. Though the core concept of this hypothesis is based on scientific facts, but the inferences made from this hypothesis is wrong. They claim that Mitochondrial Eve and Y-Chromosomal Adam were living in Africa around 200000 years ago. While latest research on Tis al-Ghada (TAG) proves the theory proposed by Islamic literature. Adam and Hawa (Eve) lived in Arabian Peninsula. This was the place where first human settlement was established. From this subcontinent they migrated to Africa, Europe and Central Asia.



How the scientists think? Look at this scenario:

The first Homo sapiens fossil discovery in Saudi Arabia, and the oldest directly dated fossil for modern humans outside Africa and the Levant, has been found in the Nefud Desert. It shows that our species had spread beyond Africa much earlier than previously thought.

The multinational Palaeodeserts Project has spent years combing the deserts of Arabia for evidence of early human occupation and ancient environment. Its efforts paid off when a team, excavated the site of Al Wusta and unearthed a Homo sapiens finger bone at least 85,000 years old. The find is reported in a study published today in Nature Ecology & Evolution.

The team was led by Michael Petraglia at the Max Plank Institute for Science of Human History, Jenna, who describes the discovery as “a dream come true” and says it was “like finding the needle in the haystack.” [17]

Actually, relying on ‘Out of Africa Migration Hypothesis’ they think humans migrated from Africa to Arabian Peninsula, whereas the reality is reciprocal of this hypothesis.

A deep genetic study of Arabian genomes and comparing it with other genomes inferred the following realities:

After entering the Arabian Peninsula, human ancestors entered South Asia and spread to Australia (Rasmussen et al. 2011), Europe, and eventually, the Americas. The individuals in these migrations were the most direct ancestors of ancient non-African peoples, and they established the contemporary non-African populations recognized today (Cavalli-Sforza and Feldman 2003).[18]

According to Josephus (Antiquities of the Jews I.6):

Japhet, the son of Noah, had seven sons: they inhabited so, that, beginning at the mountains Taurus and Amanus, they proceeded along Asia, as far as the river Tanais (Don), and along Europe to Cadiz; and settling themselves on the lands which they light upon, which none had inhabited before, they called the nations by their own names.[19]

We can conclude from this quote that the descendants of Yafith (Japeth) migrated to the Anatolian region from Arabian Peninsula and inhabited around the Taurus mountain (present Turkey). Later on, they moved to neighbouring islands located in Ionian sea including Greece and Cyprus.

Wikipedia observes:

Greek colonies and communities have been historically established on the shores of the Mediterranean Sea and Black Sea, but the Greek people have always been centered on the Aegean and Ionian seas, where the Greek language has been spoken since the Bronze Age.[20]

It has been recorded that Greeks have used Abjad (Arabic alphabets) that were used to write Northwest Semitic languages, more specifically early PhoenicianMoabiteAmmoniteEdomiteHebrew and Old Aramaic.

This was a characteristic of the Bronze age. Using Abjad for writing in Greece shows a close relationship between the Arabs and Greece people in the ancient time. The well-known Greek language was derived from the same Abjad.

In Hebrew literature, Younan (Yawan) has been frequently used for Greece. Even the same practice has been recorded in in Ancient Persian and Indian languages like Sanskrit.[21]All these facts prove the truthfulness of the Qur’anic narratives and the Prophetic Traditions.

In short, Arabian Peninsula is not only the Cradle of humanity but cradle of civilization as well. From this subcontinent, people migrated to other regions and inhabited all the continents.

 

 



[1] http://pubs.usgs.gov/of/1997/ofr-97-470/OF97-470B/arabmap.html

[2] http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Arabian_Plate

[3] Al-Qur’an, [3:96]

[4]Al-Qur’an, [42:7]

[11]Ibid

[12] Philip Khuri Hitti, The Arabia: A Short History, p.7

[13]Encyclopedia of the Peoples of the Africa and the Middle East, p.621

[15]Ibid

[16]Ibid