Showing posts with label ablution. Show all posts
Showing posts with label ablution. Show all posts

Sunday, December 12, 2021

How to perform Wudhu (Minor Ablution)

 

Wudhu (Minor Ablution)[1]

(A Chapter from Daleel At-Talib (A Hanbali Fiqh Textbook)

Notes & Translation by Sajid Mahmood Ansari

Saying Bismillah is Wajib (essential), it is eliminated if one misses it forgetfully. But if he recalls it during Wudhu, then he should perform Wudhu from the beginning.[2] There are six obligatory acts in Wudhu:

Obligatory Acts in Wudhu:

(i)             Washing the face entirely, including rinsing the mouth and snuffing water[3]

(ii)         Washing the forearms including elbows[4]

(iii)      Wiping over the head entirely, including the ears[5]

(iv)      Washing the feet including ankles[6]

(v)          Order[7]

(vi)      Muwalat (washing the limbs consecutively)[8]

Prerequisites For Wudhu

There are eight prerequisites[9] for Wudhu:

(i)             Whatever obligates Wudhu should be over[10]

(ii)         Intention[11]

(iii)      Islam[12]

(iv)      Sanity [13]

(v)          Adolescence[14]

(vi)      Lawful clean water[15]

(vii)   Removing the materials (from organs of wudhu) that resist absorption of water[16]

(viii)           Al-Istinja or Al-Istijmar (after using lavatory)[17]

Niyah (intention) means determination for lifting ritual impurity; or determination for an act that requires purification like Salaah (prayers),[18] Tawaaf (circumambulation around Ka’abah at Makkah)[19], touching the Holy Quran[20]; or determination for an act that is recommended purification[21] like reciting Quran[22], remembering Allah Almighty[23], Adhan (calling for prayers)[24], going to bed[25], removing doubt (whether Wudhu is nullified or not)[26], in case of anger and unlawful speech[27], staying in Masjid[28], teaching knowledge[29] and eating meal[30]. If somebody intended for something from aforementioned acts, but he spoke something different verbally, the ritual impurity is removed and this difference does not harm at all[31]. Likewise doubt in intention or performance of an obligatory act, after completing an act of worship, does not harm but if doubt persits while offering an act of worship, it is nullified and should be repeated (after confirmation).[32]

Description of Wudhu:

He intends (for Wudhu) and says Bismillah (In the name of Allah), washes both hands, then rinse his mouth and snuffs water. Then he washes his face from the general hairline of the head; washing external side of beard is sufficient provided that it does not reveal the skin. Then he washes his both forearms including his elbows. Slight dirt under nails and the like does not harm. Then he wipes the whole surface of his head from the line of his face to the nape, while white skin above ears is part of the head, while he inserts his index fingers into the ear-holes and wipes the external part of the ears with his thumbs. Then he washes his feet including ankles that are two protruded bones.

Recommended Acts in Wudhu:

Eighteen acts are recommended in Wudhu:

(i)             Facing Qiblah[33]

(ii)         Using Siwak (tooth-stick)[34]

(iii)      Washing both hands thrice [35]

(iv)      Beginning washing the face with rinsing mouth and snuffing water(respectively)[36]

(v)          Letting water to reach in the maximum depth in case of rinsing mouth and snuffing water, unless he is fasting.[37]

(vi)      Perfecting the washing of all the organs (of wudhu) generally[38]

(vii)   Using comparatively extra water while washing the face[39]

(viii)           Running the wet fingers through the thick beard[40]

(ix)       Running wet fingers in between the fingers[41]

(x)          Taking fresh water for wiping the ears[42]

(xi)       Beginning  with the right limb before the left one[43]

(xii)   Washing the limbs beyond the obligatory parts[44]

(xiii)            Washing twice and thrice[45]

(xiv)Persistence of intention till to finish Wudhu[46]

(xv)    Presence of intention when washing hands[47]

(xvi)Reciting words of intention silently[48]

(xvii)         After completing Wudhu reciting the following phrases while he lifts his gaze to the sky :

اشھد ان لا الٰہ الا اللہ وحدہ لا شریک لہ و اشھد ان محمداً عبدہ و رسولہ

(I bear witness that there is no god but Allah, He has no partners, and I bear witness that Muhammad is His slave and messenger.)[49]

(xviii)     Performing Wudhu without somebody’s assistance[50]



[1] WUDHU: Wudu is a ritual purification required for acts of worship like Salaah, reciting the Qur’an, remembering names of Allah Almighty etc.

[2] DIFFERENCE BETWEEN FARDH AND WAJIB:Generally, the two terms Fardh and Wajib stands against each other, but while discussing components of Ritual practices, these terms are treated differently. Fradh is an obligatory act that is required in all cases except in case of a valid excuse. If Fardh is missed without a valid excuse, whether intentionally or erroneously, the ritual practice is considered null and void. Say if a Fardh of Wudhu is missed, the whole Wudhu is null and void and it needs to be repeated from the beginning. On the other hand Wajib is also an essential component of a Ritual practice, but if it is missed out of forgetfulness, the ritual practice is still valid, but if it is missed intentionally, it makes the practice null and void. For instance if somebody forgets saying Bismillah in the beginning of Wudhu, it is still valid. But if he does not say Bismillah intentionally, the Wudhu is null and void. However if he recalls Bismillah during performing Wudhu, he should perform Wudhu from the beginning.

Abu Hurairah (May Allah be pleased with him) reported that the Messenger of Allah () said: The prayer of a person who does not perform ablution is not valid, and the ablution of a person who does not mention the name of Allah (in the beginning) is not valid.

[Musnad Imam Ahmad:H. 9408, Sunan Abu Dawood:H.101, Sunan Ibni Majah:H.399]

Saeed bin Zaid bin Amr bin Nufail reported same words from the Messenger of Allah ().

[Musnad Imam Ahmad:H.23624]

Imam Bukhari said that Saeed’s Hadith is the most reliable report on this subject. [Al-Muntaqa by Abdussalam ibni Taymiyah]

[3] WASHING THE ENTIRE FACE: Most of the obligatory acts of Wudhu have been taken from Surah Al-Maidah.

 “O you who believe! When you intend to offer As-Salaah (the prayer), wash your faces and your hands (forearms) up to the elbows, rub (by passing wet hands over) your heads, and (wash) your feet up to ankles…” (Al-Ma’idah 6)

So washing the entire face, from right ear lobe to left ear lobe and from forehead to underneath chin, is obligatory. The Messenger of Allah () always rinsed the mouth and snuffed water while performing Wudhu. It is the Prophetic explanation of the aforementioned Ayah. Even when he washed each organ only once, he did not forget to rinse mouth and snuff water. So Rinsing mouth and snuffing water is also part of washing face.

Humran R.A (the slave of 'Uthman) narrated, “I saw Uthman bin Affan (May Allah be pleased with him) asking for a tumbler of water (and when it was brought) he poured water over his hands and washed them thrice and then put his right hand in the water container and rinsed his mouth, washed his nose by putting water in it and then blowing it out. then he washed his face and forearms up to the elbows thrice, passed his wet hands over his head and washed his feet up to the ankles thrice. Then he said, "Allah's Messenger () said 'If anyone performs ablution like that of mine and offers a two-rak'at prayer during which he does not think of anything else (not related to the present prayer) then his past sins will be forgiven.' "

[Sahih Bukhari:H.159, Sahih Muslim:H.226]

Abu Hurairah (May Allah be pleased with him) reported that Allah's Messenger () said, "If anyone of you performs ablution he should put water in his nose and then blow it out.”

[Sahih Bukhari:H.162, Sahih Muslim:H.237]

Abu Hurairah (May Allah be pleased with him) reported that Allah's Messenger () ordered to rinse the mouth and snuff water.

[Sunan Darqutni:1/116]

[4] Ibid

[5] WIPING OVER THE HEAD: Mainstream Hanbali scholars consider wiping over the entire head an obligatory part of Wudhu.

Yahya Al-Mazini narrated that a person asked Abdullah bin Zaid (May Allah be pleased with him) who was the grandfather of Amr bin Yahya, "Can you show me how Allah's Messenger () used to perform ablution?" `Abdullah bin Zaid (May Allah be pleased with him)  replied in the affirmative and asked for water. He poured it on his hands and washed them twice, then he rinsed his mouth thrice and washed his nose with water thrice by putting water in it and blowing it out. He washed his face thrice and after that he washed his forearms up to the elbows twice and then passed his wet hands over his head from its front to its back and vice versa (beginning from the front and taking them to the back of his head up to the nape of the neck and then brought them to the front again from where he had started) and washed his feet (up to the ankles).

[Sahih Bukhari:H.185, Sunan Abu Dawood:H.18]

It is notable that ears are part of head as it has been described by Allah's Messenger ().

Abdullah bin Zaid (May Allah be pleased with him) narrated that the Messenger of Allah () said: 'The ears are part of the head.' [Sunan Ibni Majah:H.443]

Abu Umamah Al-Bahili (May Allah be pleased with him) narrated that the Messenger of Allah () used to say: ‘Ears are part of the head.’ [Musnad Imam Ahmad:H.22666]

Imam Ahmad R.A declared this Hadith authentic and reliable.

[6] See foot note no.3

[7] PERFORMING WUDHU IN REQUIRED ORDER: The Messenger of Allah () always performed  Wudhu in an order that has been mentioned in Surah Al-Maidah. It shows that keeping order is a requirement of this Ayah. That is why performing Wudhu in prescribed order is an obligation. If somebody changes the order his Wudhu is null and void.

[8] MUWALAT: Muwalat refers to consecutiveness. One should wash organs of Wudhu with a moderate speed, so that when he washes an organ he should wash the next organ before drying up the previous organ. The reason for this ruling is that Allah's Messenger () always performed Wudhu consecutively. He never paused for a longer time during Wudhu. However, I personally opine that it should be taken as Wujoob instead of Fardh. It means if somebody does not fulfil the requirement of Muwalat either accidentally, mistakenly or forgetfully, then His Wudhu is still valid. If he does not care for Muwalat intentionally, out of laziness, then his Wudhu is null and void.

[9] SHUROOT: Arabic connotation Shuroot refers to pre-requisites required to be fulfilled prior to commencing some ritual practices. There are eight pre-requisites for Wudhu.

[10] It means whatever invalidates Wudhu, should has come to an end, like menses, postpartum bleeding, defecation, urination etc.

[11] INTENTION: Umar bin Al-Khattab (May Allah be pleased with him) reported: I heard Allah's Messenger () saying, "The reward of deeds depends upon the intentions and every person will get the reward according to what he has intended. So whoever emigrated for worldly benefits or for a woman to marry, his emigration was for what he emigrated for."

[Sahih Bukhari:1]

 

Jundub (May Allah be pleased with him) reported that the Prophet () said, "He who lets the people hear of his good deeds intentionally, to win their praise, Allah will let the people know his real intention (on the Day of Resurrection), and he who does good things in public to show off and win the praise of the people, Allah will disclose his real intention (and humiliate him).

[Sahih Bukhari:H.6499]

 

[12] ISLAM:  Allah Almighty said:

“O you who believe! When you intend to offer As-Salaah (the prayer), wash your faces and your hands (forearms) up to the elbows, rub (by passing wet hands over) your heads, and (wash) your feet up to ankles…” (Al-Ma’idah 6)

The Qur’an addresses the believers when commanding to perform Wudhu and offer Salaah. That is why Islam is a pre-requisite of Wudhu. Non-Muslims are not required to perform these ritual practices without embracing Islam.

[13] SANITY: Sanity is a condition for Wudhu. Insane person is not required to perfom this purification.

Ali bin Abu Talib (May Allah be pleased with him) reported that the Messenger of Allah (May Allah shower His blessings and peace on him) said, “The pen (of commandment) has been taken away from three persons, i.e the child until he reaches the age of puberty, the sleeping person until he awakes and the insane until he recovers.”

[Musnad Imam Ahmad:H. 940,956,1183, Jami At-Tirmidhi:H.1423]

[14] ADOLESCENCE: See Ali’s narration mentioned in the previous footnote.

[15] LAWFUL PURIFYING WATER: See lessons related to Purifying Water and its types: Lesson no.2 to 4

[16] REMOVING THE WATER RESISTANT MATERIALS: The purpose of Wudhu is washing the skin of the required organs. If there is a layer of some water resistant materials on the skin the purpose would not be fulfilled. This is why it is required to remove any water resistant material from the skin prior to performing the Wudhu, like nail paint, grease, mobile oil, enamel etc. If the layer of any water resistant material persists, the Wudhu will be invalid.

[17] AL-ISTINJA: When a person uses lavatory, or he is suffering from prostatic fluid secretion, he is required to do Istinja before performing Wudhu. If he has used lavatory he can use stones (or tissue papers) for cleansing filth, but if he is undergoing prostatic fluid secretion he is required to do Istinja with water.

Abdullah ibn Sa'd al-Ansari (May Allah be pleased with him) reported: I asked the Messenger of Allah () as to what makes it necessary to take a bath and about the (prostatic) fluid that flows after taking a bath. He replied: that is called madhi (prostatic fluid). It flows from every male. You should wash your private parts and testicles because of it and perform ablution as you do for prayer.

[Sunan Abu Dawood:H.211]

Females suffering from Leukorrhea are also required Isntinja before performing Wudhu. Allah knows the best.

SPECIAL NOTE FOR SICK PEOPLE:

The people who are suffering from a sickness that affects ritual purification, they are required to fulfill another condition prior to performing Wudhu, in addition to aforementioned eight conditions. The female suffering from Istihadah (post menses vaginal bleeding), leucorrhea or the male suffering from excessive and continuous secretion of prostatic fluid, drops after urination continuously, continuous farting etc are required to perform Wudhu after entering the time of each Salaah. It means they have to perform Wudhu for each Salaah and they are not allowed to offer prayers for more than one time with a single Wudhu.

Ayesha (May Allah be pleased with her) narrated "Fatimah bint Abi Hubaish (May Allah be pleased with her) came to the Prophet (): 'O Messenger of Allah! I am a woman who bleeds continuously and never becomes pure. Should I give up prayer?' he said: 'No, that is just a vein and is not menstruation. Do not perform prayer during the days of your period, then take a bath, and perform ablution for each prayer, even if drops of blood fall on the mat.'"

[Musnad Imam Ahmad, Sunan Ibni Majah:H.624]

Adi ibn Thabit narrated from his grandfather Qais bin Khutaim Al-Ansari (May Allah be pleased with him) that the Prophet () said about the woman having a prolonged flow of blood: She should abandon prayer during her menstrual period: then she should take a bath and pray. She should perform ablution for every prayer.

[Sunan Abu Dawood:H.297, Sunan Ibni Majah:H.625]

[18] Wudhu is key to Salaah, so Salaah is impermissible without Wudhu. Wudu for Salaah is declared obligatory by the Qur’an and Sunnah.

Abu Hurairah (May Allah be pleased with him) reported that the Messenger of Allah () said: The prayer of a person who does not perform ablution is not valid, and the ablution of a person who does not mention the name of Allah (in the beginning) is not valid.

[Musnad Imam Ahmad:H. 9408, Sunan Abu Dawood:H.101, Sunan Ibni Majah:H.399]

[19] Tawaf is an act of worship that requires Whudu, because it is like of Salaah.

Abdullah bin Abbas (May Allah be pleased with them) reported that the Messenger of Allah () said:  "Tawaaf around the House is similar to Salaah except that you talk during it. So whoever talks in it, then let him not say but good."

[Jami at-Tirmidhi:H.960]

Abdullah bin Abbas (May Allah be pleased with them) reported that the Messenger of Allah () said: ‘ A menstruating woman and the one who delivered a child should take a bath, put on ihram and perform all the rites of Hajj except circumambulation of the House (Ka'bah) when they came to the place of wearing ihram.’

[Sunan Abu Dawood:H.1744]

Ayesha (May Allah be pleased with her) reported :

‘I got my menses, so the Prophet () ordered me to carry out all the rites except for Tawaaf around the House.’

[Iami at-Tirmidhi:H.945]

These Hadiths show that Tawaaf is analogous to Salaah for requirement of ritual purification.

[20] Allah Almighty said:

None touch it except the purified.” [56:79]

So perfect purification is required for touching the Qur’an, that is major and and minor ablution.

Abu Bakr bin Hazm reported that the Messenger of Allah () wrote to him: ‘Don’t touch the Qur’an except in a state of ritual purification.

[Muwatta Imam Malik:H.466]

[21] Firstly, the acts were mentioned which mandates Wudhu, while now those acts are described for which Wudhu is not mandatory but recommended.

[22] Though reciting the Qur’an from memory or without touching the Mushaf in a state of Hadath Asghar (minor impurity) is allowed, but performing Wudhu is recommended in this case for the veneration and respect of the Qur’an.

[23] Performing Wudhu is recommended for Dhikr (remembering Allah Almighty) and reciting such phrases that contains His beautiful names.

[24] Adhan is also a kind of Dhikr so performing Wudhu is recommended for calling Adhan.

[25] Ayesha (May Allah be pleased with her) reported that When the Messenger of Allah () intended to go to bed, he performed Wudhu like Wudhu of Salaah, then went to bed.

[Musnad Imam Ahmad:H.25414]

[26] If one is doubtful whether he performed Wudhu or not, he is advised to perform Wudhu.

[27] AbuWa'il al-Qass said: We entered upon Urwah ibn Muhammad ibn as-Sa'di. A man spoke to him and made him angry. So he stood and performed ablution; he then returned and performed ablution, and said: My father told me on the authority of my grandfather Atiyyah (May Allah be pleased with him) who reported the Messenger of Allah () as saying: Anger comes from the devil, the devil was created of fire, and fire is extinguished only with water; so when one of you becomes angry, he should perform ablution.

[Sunan Abu Dawood:H.4784]

Because unlawful speech is also from Satan, so it is recommended if someone utters such unlawful words, he should perform Wudhu.

[28] Allah Almighty said:

A mosque founded on righteousness from the first day is more worthy for you to stand in. Within it are men who love to purify themselves; and Allah loves those who purify themselves.

[9:108]

The content of this Ayah demands people to be purified for staying in Masjid, though it is not mandatory but recommended.

[29] It was the general practice of the Allah's Messenger () and his companions to teach the Qur’an and Islam in a state of ritual puruty. As the following Hadith mentions:

Abdullah bin Umar (May Allah be pleased ith them) reported that Allah's Messenger (), Abu Bakr and Umar (May Allah be pleased ith them) used to offer the two Eid prayers before delivering the Khutbah.

[Sahih Bukhari:963]

Khutbah was a tool for teaching the Muslims.

[30] Salman Al-Farisi (May Allah be pleased with him) reported that I read in Taurah that there is blessing in washing hands after taking meal. I told Allah’s Apostle (May Allah shower His blessings and peace on him) what I read in Taurah. He said, “There is blessing in washing hands before and after meal.” [Musnad Imam Ahamad:H.24133]

[31] Because the required intention lies in the heart

[32] It means if doubt persists while performing an act of worship, the intention is null and void hence the same act. However if doubt occurs after completing an act of worship, the act is valid because intention was there during performance. Allah knows the best.

[33] For the practice of Sahabah R.A

[34] See the Chapter 4 (Hygienic Habits)

[35] Generally, washing hands thrice in the beginning of Wudhu is Sunnah, as it was the general practice of the Messenger of Allah ().

Humran R.A (the slave of 'Uthman) narrated, “I saw Uthman bin Affan (May Allah be pleased with him) asking for a tumbler of water (and when it was brought) he poured water over his hands and washed them thrice and then put his right hand in the water container and rinsed his mouth, washed his nose by putting water in it and then blowing it out. Then he washed his face and forearms up to the elbows thrice, passed his wet hands over his head and washed his feet up to the ankles thrice. Then he said, "Allah's Messenger () said 'If anyone performs ablution like that of mine and offers a two-rak'at prayer during which he does not think of anything else (not related to the present prayer) then his past sins will be forgiven.' "

[Sahih Bukhari:H.159, Sahih Muslim:H.226]

Al-Miqdam ibn Ma'dikarib al-Kindi (May Allah be pleased with him) reported that the ablution water was brought to the Messenger () and he performed ablution; he washed his hands up to wrists three times, then washed his forearms three times. He then rinsed his mouth and snuffed up water three times; then he wiped his head and ears inside and outside.

[Sunan Abu Dawood:H.121]

Ar-Rubayyi' daughter of Mu'awwidh ibn Afra (May Allah be pleased with her) reported that the Messenger of Allah () used to come to us. He once said: Pour ablution water on me. She then described how the Prophet () performed ablution saying: He washed his hands up to wrist three times and washed his face three times, and rinsed his mouth and snuffed up water once. Then he washed his forearms three times and wiped his head twice beginning from the back of his head, then wiped its front. He wiped his ears outside and inside. Then he washed his feet three times.

[Sunan Abu Dawood:H.126]

 

However, after wakening from deep night sleep washing hands thrice is obligatory. For details see Chapter 1 (Types of Water), foot note no.30.

[36] As it has been established through many authentic reports from the Messenger of Allah (), one of them narrated by Uthman bin Affan (May Allah be pleased with him).

[37] Laqit ibn Sabirah (May Allah be pleased with him) reported I said: Messenger of Allah! tell me about ablution. He said: Perform ablution in full and make the fingers go through the beard and snuff with water well except when you are fasting.

[Abu Dawood:H.142, Sunan an-Nasai:H.87]

[38] See the previous foot note

[39] Ibn’Abbas (May Allah be pleased with them) said, Ali bin  Abi Talib (May Allah be pleased with him) entered upon me after he has passed water. He then called for water for ablution. We brought to him a vessel containing water, and placed it before him. He said: O Ibn’Abbas, may I not show you how the Messenger of Allah () used to perform ablution? I replied : Why not? He then inclined the vessel to his hand and washed it. He then put his right hand in the vessel and poured water over the other hand and washed his hands up to the wrist. He then rinsed his mouth and snuffed up water. He then put both of his hands together in the water and took out a handful of water and threw it upon the face. He then inserted both of his thumbs in the front part of the ears. He did like that twice and thrice. He then took a handful of water and poured it over his forehead and left it running down his face.

[Sunan Abu Dawood:H.117]

[40] Anas ibn Malik  (May Allah be pleased with him) reported that whenever the Messenger of Allah () performed ablution, he took a handful of water, and, putting it under his chin, made it go through his beard, saying: Thus did my Lord command me.

[Sunan Abu Dawood:H.145]

[41] Abdullah bin Abbas (May Allah be pleased with them) reported that the Messenger of Allah () said: 'When you get up for prayer, perform ablution properly and make the water run between your toes and your fingers.'

[Sunan Ibni Majah:H.447]

Laqit ibn Sabirah (May Allah be pleased with him) reported that the Messenger of Allah () said: ‘Whenever you perform ablution, run your fingers in between your fingers.’

[Musna Imam Ahmad:H.16495]

[42] This ruling has been derived from the Hadiths that recommend perfection of Wudhu. Though ears are part of head, but to ensure the perfection they may be treated as separate organs.

Abdullah bin Amr  (May Allah be pleased with him) reported that the Messenger of Allah () said: ‘Perfect your ablution’

[Musnad Imam Ahmad:H.6809]

Abu Rawh (May Allah be pleased with him) reported that the Messenger of Allah () said:

‘Some of your people say prayers with us but they don’t perform ablution well. Whoever wants to offer prayers with us, he should perform ablution well.’

[Musnad Imam Ahmad:H.15969]

Abdullah As-Sunabihi (May Allah be pleased with him) reported that the Messenger of Allah () said: "Whoever performs ablution and rinses his mouth and nose, his sins will exit through his mouth and nose. When he washes his face, his sins will exit from his face, even from beneath his eyelids. When he washes his hands, his sins will exit from his hands. When he wipes his head, his sins will exit from his head, and even from his ears. When he washes his feet, his sins will exit from his feet, even from beneath his toenails. Then his prayer and walking towards the mosque will earn extra merit for him."

[Sunan Ibni Majah:H.282]

The recommended method of wiping over ears is described in the following Hadith:

Abdullah bin Abbas (May Allah be pleased with them) reported that  The Messenger of Allah wiped his ears, putting his forefingers in his ears and wiping the back of them with his thumbs, so he wiped them inside and out.

[Sunan Ibni Majah:H.439]

[43] It has been mentioned in a number of Hadiths, particularly Hadith of Ali (May Allah be pleased with him) mentioned in the foot note no. 24. See also the next foot note.

[44] Abdullah al-Mujmir reported R.a said I saw Abu Hurairah (May Allah be pleased with him)  perform ablution. He washed his face and washed it well. He then washed his right hand including a portion of his upper arm. He then washed his left hand including a portion of his upper arm. He then wiped his head. He then washed his right foot including his shank, and then washed his left foot including shank, and then said: This is how I saw Allah's Messenger () perform his ablution. And (Abu Huraira) added that the Messenger of Allah () had observed: ‘You shall have your faces hands and feet bright on the Day of Resurrection because of your perfect ablution. He who can afford among you, let him increase the brightness of his forehead and that of hands and legs.’

[Sahih Muslim:H.246]

[45] Washing limbs thrice renders to perfection of Wudhu. Hadith of Ali, Uthman, Miqdam bin Ma’adi al-Karib, Abu Umamah, Abdullah bin Uamr, Abdullah bin Amr (May Allah be pleased with them)  etc mention that the Prophet Muhammad () used to wash the limbs thrice. The following Hadiths is more evident in its meanings:

Abdullah bin Umar (May Allah be pleased with them) reported that the Messenger of Allah () said: ‘One who washes limbs once, he fulfills the obligation, whoever washes limbs twice, he deserves two dishes. And whoever washes limbs thrice, that is my ablution and the Prophets who came before me.’

[Musnad Imam Ahmad:H.5735]

 

 

[46] Because whole Wudhu is act of worship, so persistence of Niyyah of purification should persist till the end of Wudhu.

[47] Because Wudhu begins from washing hands, so Niyyah of purification should be present right before performing this act.

[48] It is recommended that before performing Wudhu, it is better to recite the words of Niyyah silently, being analogous to the Niyyah of Hajj and Umrah. Remember that it is not an innovation because, a legislative principle Qiyas (analogy) has been used for this ruling.

Imam Abul Khattab Al-Hanbali R.A described three types of Niyyah:

1.     Perfect: Intention in heart and reciting words with one’s tongue

2.     Permissible: Intention in heart only

3.     Null and Void: Reciting words by tongue with an inattentive heart

[Sharh al-Ibadat al-Khams, by Abu Abdullah Muhammad al-Ya’aqoobi, p.58-59]

[49] Umar bin Khattab (May Allah be pleased with him)   reported that Allah's Messenger () said: If anyone amongst you performs the ablution, and then completes the ablution well and then says: I testify that there is no god but Allah and that Muhammad  () is the servant of Allah and His Messenger, the eight gates of Paradise would be opened for him and he may enter by whichever of them he wishes.

[Sahih Muslim:H.234A]

In narration of Imam Ahmad and Abu Dawood raising gaze to sky is recommended in the Hadith of Umar bin Khattab R.A. [Musnad Imam Ahmad:H.121]

It is better to recite Shahadah thrice as it has been mentioned in the Hadith of Anas bin Malik (May Allah be pleased with him). [Musnad Imam Ahmad:H.13828]

It is also recommended to add this phrase with Shahadah:
 اَللَّهُمَّ اِجْعَلْنِي مِنْ اَلتَّوَّابِينَ, وَاجْعَلْنِي مِنْ اَلْمُتَطَهِّرِينَ

O Allah! Make me among the repentant, and make me among those who purify themselves.

Umar bin Al-Khattab (May Allah be pleased with him)  reported that Allah's Messenger  () said: 'Whoever performs Wudu, making Wudu well, then says: (Ashhadu an la ilaha illallah, wahdahu la sharika lahu, wa ashhadu anna Muhammadan-abduhu wa rasuluhu, Allahummajalni minat tawwabin, waj'alni minal mutatahhirin) 'I testify that none has the right to be worshipped but Allah Alone, there are no partners for Him. And I testify that Muhammad is His servant and Messenger. O Allah! Make me among the repentant, and make me among those who purify themselves.' Then eight gates of Paradise are opened for him, that may enter by whichever of them wishes."

[Jami at-Tirmidhi:H.55]

 

[50] All the Hadiths mentioned in the previous notes show that the Sahabah who taught the method of Prophetic Wudhu, did not accepted assistance from others to perform Wudhu. So these Hadiths conclude that performing Wudhu without taking somebody’s help is Sunnah. However, it is permissible to take somebody’s help when one needs.


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