Showing posts with label fiqh. Show all posts
Showing posts with label fiqh. Show all posts

Sunday, December 12, 2021

Manners of Using Lavatory

 

Manners of Using Lavatory

Manners of Using Lavatory

A Chapter from Daleel At-Talib (A Hanbali Fiqh Textbook)

Translation & Notes by: Sajid Mahmood Ansari

Al-Istinjaa means removal of the filth that comes out from the two pores (front and back)[1] with purifying water[2] or clean, lawful and clean stone[3], though after cleaning with stone or like[4], the mark of filth retains and cannot be removed but with water[5]. Wiping less than three times, is not permissible, while whole spot should be wiped each time[6]. Cleansing with water should bring back the  original roughness (of skin), as it was; presumption suffices for this[7]. Istinjaa with stone then with water is Sunnah (recommended)[8], vice versa is offensive[9], though relying upon anyone is permissible[10], but, (cleaning with) water is preferable[11]. Facing Qiblah and turning back towards it, while  making Istinja, is offensive[12]; it is forbidden with dung, bone and food, even of the animals[13], if it was proceeded, then purification will be possible only with water, as when the filth exceeds the regular spot[14].

Istinjaa is obligatory when comes out anything, except the clean one or the filth that does not stick with the spot.[15]

When a person enters a lavatory (or separated area), it is Sunnah (recommended) for him to step into left foot first and say:

بسم اللہ

اللھم انی اعوذبک من الخبث والخبائث

 “In the name of Allah, I seek refuge in Allah Almighty from male and female evil spirits.” [16]

And when he exits, step out right foot first and say:

غفرانک

الحمدللہ الذی اذھب عنی الاذی و عافانی

 “Your forgiveness, all praise be to Allah Almighty who removed filth from me and secured me.”[17]

While relieving, it is offensive to face the sun, the moon[18] and the opposing direction of the wind;[19] speaking,[20] urinating in a pot,[21] a burrow,[22] fire and ash. Urinating in standing position is not offensive.[23] It is forbidden to face or turn back towards Qiblah, in open country, without a barrier, however, hiding lower part is sufficient.[24] Moreover, urinating or defecating on the regular thoroughfares or in the useful shadow, under a tree with desirable fruit,[25] between the graves of the Muslims[26] and remaining there (in the privy) for a period longer than the time required,[27] is also forbidden.



[1] Urine and feces

[2] Characteristics of purifying water has been discussed in lesson no.1

[3] While relieving oneself, clean, lawful and clean stone is second option for cleaning

[4] Other objects that can be used as  alternative to stone may be a twig, patch of a cloth or paper etc [Al-Insaf: vol.1, p.109, Manarus Sabeel:vol.1, p.22]

[5] The mark of filth remains on the spot after removing filth with stone or like. This amount of filth is forgiven, because it is impossible to remove this mark without washing.

[6] CLEANSING FILTH WITH STONE:

When one cleans the filth with stone, he is required to clean the whole spot thrice.

Jabir bin Abdullah (May Allah be pleased with him) reported that the Apostle of Allah (May Allah shower His blessings and peace on him) said: “When you cleanse yourself with stone, cleanse thrice.”

[Musnad Imam Ahmad:H.15370, Sahih Ibni Khuzaymah:H.76]

Ayesha (May Allah be pleased with her) reported that  the Apostle of Allah (May Allah shower His blessings and peace on him) said: “When any of you goes to relieve himself, he should take with him three stones to cleanse himself, for they will be enough for him.”

[Musnad Imam Ahmad:H.25280, Sunan Abu Dawood:H.40]

Abu Hurairah (May Allah be pleased with him) reported that the Apostle of Allah (May Allah shower His blessings and peace on him) commanded to use three stones (for cleansing filth).

[Musnad Imam Ahmad:H.7403]

[7] When one cleans oneself with water, after easing or urinating, the original roughness of skin should be restored. In this case even a small amount of filth is not forgiven.

[8] CLEANSING FILTH WITH STONE AND THEN WASHING WITH WATER:

It is recommended that one should cleanse the filth with stone or like and then wash with water.

Ayesha (May Allah be pleased with her) reported that the women from Basrah came to her. She said to them, “Ask your spouses to remove the mark of easing and urinating with water because we feel shy to forbid them, while it was the practice of Allah’s Apostle (May Allah shower His blessings and peace on him).” [Musnad Imam Ahmad:H.25130, 25402, Jami At-Tirmidhi:H.19, Sahih Ibni Hibban:H.1443]

[9] Washing with water and then using stones is offensive for being against Sunnah.

[10] Relying on any one practice i.e washing with water or using stones, is permissible because both are reported from the Prophet (May Allah shower His blessings and peace ion him).

[11] Cleansing with water is preferable because it was the frequent practice of the Prophet (May Allah shower His blessings and peace ion him).

Anas bin Malik (May Allah be pleased with him) reported that whenever the Apostle of Allah (May Allah shower His blessings and peace on him) used to go to ease himself, I brought water and he washed himself with it.

[Musnad Imam Ahmad:H.12124, Sahih Bukhari:H.217, Sahih Muslim:H.271]

[12] While a person cleanses himself after relieving, it is offensive for him to face Qiblah or turn back towards it.

[13] FORBIDDEN OBJECT FOR CLEANSING THE FILTH:

Removing filth with dung, bone and food is forbidden for these Hadiths:

Abdullah bin Masood (May Allah be pleased with him) reported that once the Apostle of Allah (May Allah shower His blessings and peace on him) went out for relieving himself and he ordered me to search three stones for him. I brought two stones and one dropping of donkey. He took the stones and dropped the dung and said that it was filth.

[Musnad Imam Ahmad:H.3966, Sahih Bukhari:H.156]

Jabir bin Abdullah (May Allah be pleased with him) reported that the Apostle of Allah (May Allah shower His blessings and peace on him) forbade to cleanse oneself with dung or bone.

[Musnad Imam Ahmad:H.12668, Sahih Muslim:H.263]

Abdullah bin Masood (May Allah be pleased with him) reported that the Apostle of Allah (May Allah shower His blessings and peace on him) said to Jinns, “When you pick a bone that has been recited Allah’s name on it, will bear meat on it and the droppings of animals are food for your beasts.” Then he said to us, “Don’t cleanse yourself with those two objects( bone and droppings) because these are useful for brothers from jinns.

[Musnad Imam Ahmad:H.4149, Sahih Muslim:H.3258, Sahih Ibni Khuzaymah:H.5267, Sahih Ibni Hibban:H.632]

This Hadith indicates that food of animals is also forbidden for using to cleanse oneself.

Imam Mansoor bin Younus Al-Buhooti rahimahullah mentions the venerable objects among those that are forbidden to use for cleansing oneself; like paper with names of Allah or any Prophet.

[14] If one uses dung, bone or food for cleansing himself after relieving, then he is obliged to cleanse himself with water, because he is still unclean. If he uses other alternatives save water, then he will be not cleansed. Same ruling applies if the filth exceeds the normal spot of filth. Same ruling applies to other impure objects. [Al-Insaf:vol.1, p.111]

[15] ISTINJA IS OBLIGATORY:

Removing filth is obligatory whatever unclean substance or object comes out of the pores like urine, faeces, blood and Madhi (prostatic fluid), except the objects that are clean like breaking wind or the impure objects that do not stick with the spot like round worms, because no filth is stuck with the spot in this case. However in case of round worms, it is recommended, not obligatory, to wash the spot.

Miqdad bin al-Aswad (May Allah be pleased with him) reported that Ali ibn AbuTalib (May Allah be pleased with him) commanded him to ask the Apostle of Allah (May Allah shower His blessings and peace on him) what a man should do when he plays with his wife and the prostatic fluid comes out (at this moment), rather than the fluid of life (semen). (He said): I am ashamed of consulting him because of the position of his daughter. Al-Miqdad said: I asked the Apostle of Allah (May Allah shower His blessings and peace on him what a man should do when he plays with his wife and the prostatic fluid comes out (at this moment), rather than the fluid of life (semen). He said: “When any of you finds, he should wash his private part, and perform ablution as he does for prayer.”

 [Musnad Imam Ahmad:H.16845, 24809, Sunan Abu Dawood:H.211]

Ali bin Talq (May Allah be pleased with him) reported that the Apostle of Allah (May Allah shower His blessings and peace on him) said: “When any of you breaks wind during the prayer, he should turn away and perform ablution and repeat the prayer.”

[Musnad Imam Ahmad:H.24250, Sunan Abu Dawood:H.205, Jami At-Tirmidhi:H.1164, 1166]

[16] RECOMMENDED PHRASES WHILE ENTERING THE PRIVY:

Ali bin Abu Talib (May Allah be pleased with him) reported that the Apostle of Allah (May Allah shower His blessings and peace on him) said: “Saying بسم اللہ, is a barrier between giants and human private parts.” [Sunan Ibni Majah:H.297]

Anas bin Malik (May Allah be pleased with him) reported that when the Apostle of Allah (May Allah shower His blessings and peace on him) entered toilet, he used to say:

اللھم انی اعوذبک من الخبث والخبائث

[Musnad Imam Ahmad:H.11969, Sahih Bukhari:H.142, Sahih Muslim:H.375, Sunan Abu Dawood:H.4 Sunan Ibni Majah:H.298 Sahih Ibni Hibban: H.1407]

 

[17] RECOMMENDED PHRASES WHILE EXITING THE LAVATORY:

Ayesha (May Allah be pleased with her) reported that  when the Apostle of Allah (May Allah shower His blessings and peace on him) would come out of lavatory he used to say: غفرانک

[Musnad Imam Ahmad:H.25735, Sunan Abu Dawood:H.30, Jami At-Tirmidhi:H.7, Sunan Ibni Majah:H.300, Sahih Ibni Hibban:H.1444, Sahih Ibni Khuzaymah:H.90]

Anas bin Malik (May Allah be pleased with him) reported that when the Apostle of Allah (May Allah shower His blessings and peace on him) would come out of the toilet, he used to say:

الحمدللہ الذی اذھب عنی الاذی و عافانی

[Sunan Ibni Majah:H.301]

[18] FACING THE SUN AND THE MOON WHILE RELIEVING ONESELF:

This ruling is passed due to respect for big signs of Allah Almighty.

Jabir bin Abdullah Al-Ansari (May Allah be pleased with him) reported that the Apostle of Allah (May Allah shower His blessings and peace on him) said, “O’ People! Verily! The sun and the moon are two signs from the signs of Allah the Exalted.”

[Musnad Imam Ahmad:H.14470, Sahih Bukhari:H.1044, Sahih Muslim:H.901, 904]

[19] Urinating in opposing direction of the wind is offensive because urine may be sprinkled on the body or clothes due to fast blowing wind.

[20] SPEAKING WHILE RELIEVING:

Speaking without a necessity, while relieving oneself, is offensive.
Muhajir ibn Qunfudh (May Allah be pleased with him) reported that Muhajir came to the Prophet (May Allah shower His blessings and peace on him) while he was urinating. He saluted him. The Prophet (May Allah shower His blessings and peace on him) did not return the salutation to him until he performed ablution. He then apologised to him, saying: I disliked remembering Allah except in the state of purification.

[Musnad Imam Ahmad:H.19243, Sunan Abu Dawood:H.17, Sunan Ibni Majah:H.350, Sahih Ibni Hibban:H.803, Sahih Ibni Khuzaymah:H.206]

Abu Sa'id al-Khudri (May Allah be pleased with him) reported that I heard the Apostle of Allah (May Allah shower His blessings and peace on him) say: When two persons go together for relieving themselves uncovering their private parts and talking together, Allah, the Great and Majestic, becomes wrathful at this (action). [Sunan Abu Dawood:H.15]

[21] URINATING IN A POT:

Urinating in a pot without a necessity is offensive, because it is against the established Sunnah of the Prophet (May Allah shower His blessings and peace on him). However, in a case of a necessity, it is permissible to urinate in a pot like in case of severe cold or disease etc.

Umaymah daughter of Ruqayqah (May Allah be pleased with her) reported that the Prophet (May Allah shower His blessings and peace on him) had a wooden vessel under his bed in which he would urinate at night.

[Sunan Abu Dawood:H.25]

This might be happened in severe cold or in the days of the Prophet’s illness.

[22] URINATING IN A BURROW:

Abdullah ibn Sarjis (May Allah be pleased with him) reported that the Apostle of Allah (May Allah shower His blessings and peace on him) prohibited to urinate in a burrow.

[Musnad Imam Ahmad:H.21056, Sunan Abu Dawood:H.29]

[23] URINATING IN STANDING POSITION:

Urinating in standing position is permissible, provided that your body and clothes remain safe from sprinkles of urine.

Hudhaifah bin Al-Yaman (May Allah be pleased with him) reported that the Apostle of Allah (May Allah shower His blessings and peace on him) and I walked till we reached the dumps of some people. He stood, as any one of you stands, behind a wall and urinated. I went away, but he beckoned me to come. So I approached him and stood near his back till he finished.

[Musnad Imam Ahmad:H.23637, Sahih Bukhari:H.224, Sunan Abu Dawood:H.23]

It is notable that the established Sunnah of the Apostle of Allah (May Allah shower His blessings and peace on him) is urinating in sitting position, that is recommended for protecting oneself from urine sprinkle.

Abdur Rahman bin Hasanah (Be His mercy on him) reported: I and Amr ibn al-As (May Allah be pleased with him) went to the Prophet (May Allah shower His blessings and peace on him). He came out with a leather shield (in his hand). He covered himself with it and urinated (in sitting position). Then we said: Look at him. He is urinating as a woman does. The Prophet (May Allah shower His blessings and peace on him) heard this and said: Do you not know what befell a person from amongst Banu Isra'il (the children of Israel)? When urine fell on them, they would cut off the place where the urine fell; but he (that person) forbade them (to do so), and was punished in his grave.

[Musnad Imam Ahmad:H.17912, Sunan Abu Dawood:H.22]

Imam Ibni Hajr Al-Aasqlani said about this Hadith of Abdur Rahman bin Hasanah, “It is a Sahih Hadith, Imam Ad-Darqutni declared it Sahih.”

[Fathul Bari:vol.1, p.435, Under Hadith # 224]

Ayesha Siddiqa (May Allah be pleased with her) said that if someone inform you that the Prophet (May Allah shower His blessings and peace on him) urinated in standing position, don’t testify him because he (p.b.u.h) never urinated but in sitting posture, since when Qur’an has been revealed to him.

[Musnad Imam Ahmad:H.25559, Sunan Ibni Majah:H.307]

Apparently, Ayesha’s Hadith contradicts Hudhaifah’s one, but in reality there is no contradiction, because Ayesha (May Allah be pleased with her) reported the general practice of Prophet (May Allah shower His blessings and peace on him), while Hudhaifah (May Allah be pleased with him) reported an incidence that he observed but Ayesha (May Allah be pleased with her) was not aware of this incident. Allah knows the best.

So it is recommendable to pee sitting down. Latest scientific reports show that peeing sitting down is healthy and comfortable as compared to pee standing upright.

However, the Hadith attributed to Jabir (May Allah be pleased with him) (Sunan Ibni Majah:H.309) that forbids urinating in standing position is extremely weak that can’t stand against Hudhaifah’s authentic Hadith. Allah knows the best.

[24]FACING QIBLAH OR TURNING BACK TOWARDS IT:
It is Haram (prohibited) to face the Qiblah or turn one's back towards it while urinating or defecating out in the open. However, it is permissible inside buildings or where there is a screen between one and the Ka`bah, and that screen is close in front of the person facing the Qiblah or close behind if one's back is towards the Qiblah, such as a wall, a tree, a mountain and so on.

Abu Ayyub (May Allah be pleased with him) that the Prophet (saw) said, “Do not face toward the Qiblah nor turn your backs toward it when defecating or urinating, rather face toward the east or the west.”

[Musnad Imam Ahmad:H .23921, Sahih Bukhari:394, Sunan Abu Dawood:H.11]

It is notable that Qiblah in Madinah lies southwards, that is why the Messenger (May Allah shower His blessings and peace on him) ordered the inhabitants of Madinah to face the east or the west.

Abu Hurayrah (May Allah be pleased with him) reported that the Messenger of Allah (May Allah shower His blessings and peace on him) said, “When any one amongst you squats for answering the call of nature, he should neither turn his face towards the Qiblah nor turn his back towards it.”

[Musnad Imam Ahmad:H.7362, Sahih Muslim:H.265, Sahih Ibni Hibban:H.1431, Sahih Ibni Khuzaimah:H.80]

Marwan al-Asfar (Be His Mercy on him) said: I saw Ibn Umar (May Allah be pleased with him) make his camel kneel down facing the Qiblah, then he sat down urinating in its direction. So I said: Abu Abdur Rahman! has this not been forbidden? He replied: Why not, that was forbidden only in open country; but when there is something between you and the Qiblah that conceals you , then there is no harm.

[Musnad Imam Ahmad:H.21056, Sunan Abu Dawood:H.11]

Jabir bin Abdullah (May Allah be pleased with him) reported that the Messenger of Allah (May Allah shower His blessings and peace on him) forbade facing the Qiblah when urinating. But I saw him, one year before he died, facing the Qiblah (while urinating).

[Musnad Imam Ahmad:H.14933, Sunan Abu Dawood:H.13, Jami at-Tirmidhi:H.9, Sunan Ibni Majah:H.325, Sahih Ibni Khuzaimah:58, Sahih Ibni Hibban:H.1420]

Actually, in the early days after migration to Madinah, there were no constructed toilets, so the Muslims used to ease themselves in the open country. But after the conquest of Makkah in 8th year after Hijrah, many Muslims constructed toilets. That is why Jabir bin Abdullah (May Allah be pleased with him) saw the Messenger of Allah (May Allah shower His blessings and peace on him) easing himself in the constructed toilet, that did not exceed the human shoulders in height.

Still it is preferable to avoid facing or turning back towards Qiblah/Ka’abah, even when you urinate in closed toilets for the general command of the Messenger of Allah (May Allah shower His blessings and peace on him):

When any one amongst you squats for answering the call of nature, he should neither turn his face towards the Qiblah nor turn his back towards it.”

FACING BAITUL MAQDAS WHILE RELIEVING ONESELF:

While relieving in open country it is recommended to avoid facing or turning back towards Baitul Maqdas.

Ma’qil bin Abu Ma’qil (May Allah be pleased with him) reported that the Messenger of Allah (May Allah shower His blessings and peace on him) forbade to face both Qiblahs (Baitullah & Baitul Maqdas) while we urinate of defficate.

[Musnad Imam Ahmad:H.17992, Sunan Abu Dawood:H.10, Sunan Ibni Majah:H.319]

[25] This ruling is based on the legal principle that one should neither cause trouble to others nor he should be troubled. Relieving in thoroughfares or under the trees cause trouble or loss for others, so it is forbidden.

Abu Hurairah (May Allah be pleased with him) reported that the Apostle of Allah (May Allah shower His blessings and peace on him) said: Be on your guard against two things which provoke cursing: easing oneself on the thoroughfares and in the shade (of the tree).

[Musnad Imam Ahmad:H.21056, Sunan Abu Dawood:H.25]

Muadh bin Jabal (May Allah be pleased with him) reported that the Messenger of Allah (May Allah shower His blessings and peace on him) said: Be on your guard against three things which provoke cursing: easing in the watering places and on the thoroughfares, and in the shade (of the tree).

[Sunan Abu Dawood:H.26]

[26] RELIEVING ONESELF AMONG THE GRAVES:

Uqbah bin Aamir (May Allah be pleased with him) reported that the Apostle of Allah (May Allah shower His blessings and peace on him) said, “I am nothing if i relieve myself among the graves or in the middle of market.”

[Sunan Ibni Majah]

[27] Staying in the privy is a painstaking and undesirable action, but we have to do it for the call of nature. So staying there for a period longer than the required time in general, without a necessity, is forbidden. Moreover one remains naked in the privy, while keeping naked without a necessity is prohibited.

Abdullah bin Umar (May Allah be pleased with them) reported that the Apostle of Allah (May Allah shower His blessings and peace on him) said, “Don’t keep naked, because there are (angels) who accompany you and do not leave you alone, except in the privy or when a man fulfils his desire with his wife; So feel shy of them and respect them.”

[Jami At-Tirmidhi]


Saturday, December 11, 2021

Cleansing Water Required for Ablution



Cleansing Water Required for Ablution

Cleansing Water Required For Ablution

Author: Sajid Mahmood Ansari

Water is the major substance to get cleansed, both from Hadath and Najasah.

The Shari'ah has divided water into three types:

(i)                Cleansing Water

(ii)             Clean but not Cleansing   

(iii)           Filthy Water

CLEANISING WATER:

It is the clean water, acquired from natural sources like rain, sea, river, lake, canal, well etc. Generally, it is colourless, odourless and tasteless; however, in some cases it may be salty or muddy. It is not only clean itself, but has the ability to purify.

Rain Water:

(a) Allah Almighty says:

And He it is Who sends the Winds as heralds of glad tidings going before His Mercy and We send down cleanising water from the sky.” [25:48]

Remember He covered you with a sort of drowsiness to give you calm as from Himself and He caused rain to descend on you from heaven to clean you therewith to remove from you the stain of Satan to strengthen your hearts and to plant your feet firmly therewith.” [8:11]

River / Canal Water:

Allah Almighty says:

See you the water which you drink? Do you bring it Down (in rain) from the Cloud or do We?” [56:68-69]

It is already mentioned that rain water is clean. This rain water flows in the form of rivers and streams.

Sea Water:

Allah Almighty says:

And two seas are not alike: this, fresh, sweet, food to drink, this (other) bitter, salt. And from them both you eat fresh meat and derive the ornament that you wear.” [35:12]

Of course, drinking water from sweet aquifers in the sea, is clean and sanctity of sea food (Fresh Meat) proves that sea water is clean.

Abu Hurairah (May Allah be pleased with him) reported that a man said to the Allah’s Apostle (May Allah shower His blessings and peace on him), “ O’ Allah’s Apostle! We travel through the sea, and we have a little (sweet) water; if we perform Wudhu (ablution) with that water, we shall be left thirsty, so may we perform Wudhu with sea water? the Allah’s Apostle ( May Allah shower His blessings and peace on him) said, “Sea water is purifier and (eating) its dead (animal) is permissible.”

 [Musnad Imam Ahmad:H.7232, 8720, 8899, 9088, 9089, Sunan Abu Dawood:H.83, Jami at-Tirmidhi:H.69, Sunan Ibni Majah:H.386,3246, Sahih Ibni Khuzaimah:H.111, Sahih Ibni Hibban:H.1243]

Underground Water:

Allah Almighty says:

And there is not a thing but with Us are the stores thereof. And We send it not down save in appointed measure. And We send the winds fertilizing, and cause water to descend from the sky, and give it you to drink. It is not you who are the holders of the store thereof.” [15:21-22]

And We send down water from the sky according to (due) measure and We cause it to soak in the soil; and We certainly are able to drain it off.” [23:18]

Both the verses mentioned above allude to the underground water, that comes from the sky, and diffuses down through filtration making underground oceans. This underground water is drawn out through wells or water pumps.

Ali bin Abu Talib (May Allah be pleased with him) reported that the Allah’s Apostle ( May Allah shower His blessings and peace on him) ordered to fetch a container of water from Zamzam well, drank its water and performed Wudhu with it.

CLEAN BUT NOT CLEANSING

This is the second type of water that is inherently clean but loses its ability to purify. This water can be used for other purposes, like drinking, washing hands and face just to remove dust or dyes etc, taking bath just with intention of cooling body or removing dust, washing vessels, clothes or floor, that are not defiled with a filth.[Al-Insaf, vol.1, p.28, Kashaf-ul-Qina’a, vol.1, p.25]

The reason for this water being clean is that no filth has been added to it, so it retains its original clean quality. It is also concluded from the following Hadith:

Jabir (May Allah be pleased with him) reported that the Allah’s Apostle  (May Allah shower His blessings and peace on him) came to visit me while I was sick and unconscious. He performed ablution and sprinkled the remaining water on me and I became conscious and said, "O Allah's Apostle! To whom will my inheritance go as I have neither ascendants nor descendants?" Then the Divine verses regarding Fara'id (inheritance) were revealed.

[Musnad Imam Ahamad:H.14349,  Sahih Bukhari:H.194, 4577, Sahih Muslim:H.1616, Sahih Ibni Hibban:H.1266, Sahih Ibni Khuzaimah:H.106]

There are two types of this clean water:

(a) Water that loses its original colour, odour or taste, by dissolving something clean

(b) The water used for ritual purification

[1] When some clean substance is dissolved in water, that changes its dominant colour, odour or taste, it remains clean, but loses its ability to purify. The reason for this ruling is as following:

Allah Almighty says:

If you are sick, or on a journey, or one of you has used the toilet, or has had contact with women and can find no water, then make Tayammum, take some clean soil and rub your faces and hands with it. Allah is the Lenient, the Forgiving..” [4:43]

Abu Zar Al-Ghifari (May Allah be pleased with him) reported that the Allah’s Apostle (May Allah shower His blessings and peace on him) said, “Verily! Clean dust is a means of purification for you until you find water, even after ten years, and when you find water, clean your skin with it.”

[Musnad Imam Ahamad:H.21629, 21630, 21698, Sunan Abu Dawood: H.332, Jami at-Tirmidhi:H.124]

Shariah recommends TAYAMMUM (Dry Ablution with Dust), when someone can’t find water for ablution, instead of making ablution with other liquids like fruit juices, milk, oil and vinegar. Even Nabeedh (Date Syrup) can’t be used for ritual purification. The water, that loses its original properties by dissolving something clean, whether it is baked or not, is not allowed to use for ritual purification and removal of filth. For example when saphron, camphor, dye etc is added to water and it dominates water’s colour, odour or taste, then it loses its originality. Now the water is attributed to the substance dissolved in it. Likewise when some grains, flowers or fruits are baked in water, it again loses its originality and it is called now Rose Water, Barley Water etc. So, despite being clean, such altered water neither deletes ritual impurity nor removes filth. [Al-Insaf, vol.1, p.32-34, Kashaf-ul-Qina’a, vol.1, p.29]

There is an exception for dust/soil. When soil is added to water naturally or artificially, the water retains its ability to purify, provided that the water can flow normally, retaining its liquidity, without turning into mud. The reason for this exception is that Shariah considers soil, a mean of ritual purification, as described in the aforementioned verse and Hadith.  [Al-Insaf, vol.1, p.35, Kashaf-ul-Qina’a, vol.1, p.29]

THE USED WATER:

The water that has been used for washing body or some of its parts in case of lifting ritual impurity, like obligatory Wudhu (Ablution) or Ghusl (Ritual Bath), is considered clean but loses its ability to purify. It is the water that flows over the body and drops down, while making ritual purification. It does not imply to the water left over in the container, provided that he/she washed his/her hand three times before putting it into the container. Dropping of a few drops of used water into the container, unintentionally, does not affect the originality of water, because, minuscule is overlooked in general.

[Al-Insaf, vol.1, p.36, Kashaf-ul-Qina’a, vol.1, p.29-30]

Abu Hurairah (May Allah be pleased with him) reported that the Allah’s Apostle ( May Allah shower His blessings and peace on him) said, " None of you should take bath in stagnant water, when he is post sexually defiled.” They said, “O’ Abu Hurairah! What should he do?” He replied, “He should take out water (by means of a vessel).”

[Sahih Muslim:283, Sunan Ibni Majah:H.605]

When a person, who requires ritual purification, puts his hand into small quantity of water with intention of purification, without washing it three times, it is also considered used water, that can’t be used for ritual purification. That is why Allah’s Apostle (May Allah shower His blessings and peace on him) forbade to take bath in stagnant water, because water will turn ‘used’ by inserting any body part into it. See detail in next foot note.

 

Abu Hurairah (May Allah be pleased with him) reported that the Allah’s Apostle ( May Allah shower His blessings and peace on him) said, "Whoever wakes up from his sleep should wash his hands thrice before putting them in the water for ablution, because nobody knows where his hands were during sleep."

[Musnad Imam Ahamad:H.7590, 7802, Sahih Bukhari:H.194, 4577, Sahih Muslim:278]

However, washing hands before putting into water or touching any food, is recommended all the time for every person, Muslim or Non-Muslim, children or elders, whether they do not sleep at all, whether they have no intention of ritual purification, whether the water in the vessel  or food is  large in quantity.

Salman Al-Farisi (May Allah be pleased with him) reported that I read in Taurah that there is blessing in washing hands after taking meal. I told Allah’s Apostle (May Allah shower His blessings and peace on him) what I read in Taurah. He said, “There is blessing in washing hands before and after meal.” [Musnad Imam Ahamad:H.24133]

Mansoor bin Younus Al-Buhuti Al-Hanbali (R.A) said:

“Washing hands before meal is Sunnah (recommended) and after it as well.” [Ar-Raudh-ul-Murbi:P.419]

FILTHY WATER

The filthy water, that is forbidden to use, except in a case of necessity, neither lifts impurity nor removes filth. It is the water, when Najasah (filth) drops into it and it is small in quantity (though its properties do not change), or it is in large quantity and one of its properties changed.

When filth mixes with water, there may be two possibilities:

WHEN WATER IS SMALL IN QUANTITY:

If clean water is small in quantity and some unclean substance or filth drops into it, it turns unclean and filthy, whether none of its properties changes.

Abu Hurairahh (May Allah be pleased with him) reported that the Allah’s Apostle ( May Allah shower His blessings and peace on him) said, "If a dog drinks from the utensil of anyone of you it is essential to wash it seven times."

[Musnad Imam Ahamad:H.7440 Sahih Bukhari:H.172, Sahih Muslim: H.279, Sahih Ibni Hibban:H.1296, Sahih Ibni Khuzaimah:H.98]

This Hadith indicates that dog’s saliva makes small quantity of water unclean, whereas its saliva does not change colour, odour or taste of that water generally.

The following Hadith also fortifies this ruling:

Kabshah, daughter of Ka’b bin Malik (May Allah be pleased with him) and wife of Ibni Abu Qatadah, reported that Abu Qatadah (May Allah be pleased with him) visited (me) and I poured out water for him for ablution. A cat came and drank some of it and he tilted the vessel for it until it drank some of it. Kabshah said: He saw me looking at him (with wonder); he asked me: Are you surprised, my niece? I said: Yes. He then reported the Messenger of Allah (May Allah shower His blessings and peace on him) as saying: It is not unclean; it is one of those (males or females) who go round among you.

 [Musnad Imam Ahamad:H.22950, 23013, Sunan Abu Dawood:H.75, Jami at-Tirmidhi:H.92, Sahih Ibni Hibban:H.1299, Sahih Ibni Khuzaimah:H.104]

Kabshah bint Ka’ab was surprised thinking that the little water would get unclean when a cat drinks from it, assuming the cat unclean. The companion of the Messenger of Allah (May Allah shower His blessings and peace on him) Abu Qatadah (May Allah be pleased with him), confirmed her perception in a way and rejected her assumption on the other hand, by declaring that cat and its saliva is not unclean. His words prove that if the cat’s saliva would be unclean, the little water in the utensil would become unclean.

Here are more examples for avoiding small amount of filth when mixed in water:

Salama bin Al-Akwa’a (May Allah be pleased with him) reported that we went out with the Prophet (May Allah shower His blessings and peace on him) to Khaibar. A man among the people said, "O’ Amir! Will you please recite to us some of your poetic verses?” So Amir got down and started chanting among them, saying, “By Allah! Had it not been for Allah, we would not have been guided. “Amir also said other poetic verses which I do not remember. Allah’s Apostle said, “Who is this (camel) driver?” The people said, “He is Amir bin Al-Akwa’a.” He said, “May Allah bestow His Mercy on him.” A man from the People said, “O’ Allah’s Apostle! Would that you let us enjoy his company longer.” When the people (Muslims) lined up, the battle started, and Amir was struck with his own sword (by chance) by himself and died. In the evening, the people made a large number of fires (for cooking meals). Allah’s Apostle (May Allah shower His blessings and peace on him) said, ”What is this fire? What are you making the fire for?” They said, “For cooking the meat of donkeys.” He said, “Throw away what is in the pots and break the pots!” A man said, “O’ Allah’s Prophet! May we throw away what is in them and wash them?” He said, “Never mind, you may do so.”

[Musnad Imam Ahamad:H.16640, Sahih Bukhari:H.2477, Sahih Muslim: H.1802, Sahih Ibni Hibban:H.5276]

Abu Tha’alabah al-Khushni (May Allah be pleased with him) reported that I said, “O’ Allah’s Apostle (May Allah shower His blessings and peace on him) we live in the country of the People of the Book, indeed they eat pork and drink wine, so what we do with their utensils?” He said, “If you do not find the utensils except theirs, then wash them with water and cook in them and drink.” [Musnad Imam Ahmad:H.17889]

Hasan Basri r.a (d. 110 H) was asked if a few drops of wine or blood, get mixed with water in a container, he commanded to pour it out. [Musannaf Ibni Abi Shaybah:H.1772]

These Hadiths reveal the general trend of Allah’s Apostle (May Allah shower His blessings and peace on him), his companions (May Allah be pleased with them) and their descendants, regarding slight amount of filth, even if it does not alter the properties of water apparently.

(b) WHEN WATER IS LARGE IN QUANTITY:

The water that’s volume is equal or greater than two QULLAHS is considered large in quantity, according to Hanbali madhab. When water is large in quantity and something unclean or filth drops into it, there are two possibilities:

(i)    The colour, odour or taste of this water may be changed. In this case the water is impure/unclean and unlawful to use for purification. All Muslim scholars agree on this issue.

Abu Umamah al-Bahily (May Allah be pleased with him) reported that the Allah’s Apostle (May Allah shower His blessings and peace on him) said, “Nothing makes water unclean, except that changes its odour, taste or colour.”

[Sunan Ibni Majah:H.521]   

It is notable that impurity of water is Najasah Hukmiyah (Ritual Filth), because it can be cleansed, while Najasah Ayniyah (Physical Filth) can’t be cleansed.

[Al-Insaf, vol.1, p.64]

(ii) If human poo or urine mixes up with large quantity of water, and none of the characteristics of water get changed. In this case the water is considered filthy. The author (Maryee bin Yousuf r.a) and majority of the later scholars do not make any exception for human feces and urine, while great majority of former Hanbali scholars, including Muhammad bin Husain Al-Khirqi, Qadhi Abu Ya’ala, Ibni Abdoos, Abu Muhammad Ibni Qudamah Al-Maqdasi, Abu Abdullah Muhammad bin Abdullah Az-Zarkashi etc view that if human feces or urine  drops into large quantity of water, it turns uncleanclean, even if none of its characteristics change at all, except when the water body is so large, that it can’t be drained out without extreme difficulty, like large pools. Three pupils of Imam Ahmad bin Hanbal r.a, Salih bin Ahmad, Al-Maruzi and Abu Talib r.a, reported this view from him.

[Al-Insaf, vol.1, p.60-63, Kashaf-ul-Qina’a, vol.1, p.37-38, Al-Mughni, vol.1, p.37 , Sharh Az-Zarkashi, vol.1, p. 14-17]

The following Hadith supports the view of former scholars.

Abu Hurairah (May Allah be pleased with him) reported that the Allah’s Apostle (May Allah shower His blessings and peace on him) said, “Do not urinate in stagnant water, that does not flow, then do not take bath in it after urinating.”

[Musnad Imam Ahmad:H.8171, Sahih Bukhari:H.239, Sahih Muslim:H.282]

So it is better and safer to avoid using water in which human feces or urine is added, even if the characteristics of water do not change, except when the water body is very large.

HOW TO DECIDE THE QIATITY OF WATER IS LARGE OR SMALL?

 The Muslim scholars strongly differ on how to decide the quantity of water is large or small? Imam Shafiyee and Imam Ahmad bin Hanbal decides this by the following Hadith reported by Abdullah bin Umar (May Allah be pleased with him):

Abdullah bin Umar (May Allah be pleased with them) reported that the Allah’s Apostle ( May Allah shower His blessings and peace on him) was asked about water in desert country and what is frequented by animals and wild beasts. He replied: When there is enough water to fill two  Qullahs (pitchers), it bears no impurity.

[Musnad Imam Ahamad:H.4605, 4753, 4803, 4961, 5855,  Sunan Abu Dawood:H.63, 64, 65, Jami at-Tirmidhi:H.67, Sunan Ibni Majah:H.517, 518, Sahih Ibni Hibban:H.1249, Sahih Ibni Khuzaimah:H.92]

While Imam Abu Hanifah (R.A) declares this Hadith weak on the ground that the issue discussed in this Hadith is not a private one, but every Muslim faces such a situation. So it is impossible that such a significant matter would have been narrated only through a single Companion, even with confused words. So he opines that it depends on the person’s perception that faces such a situation. It is important to note that even if we go with the aforementioned Hadith, in most of the cases a person has to rely upon its perception instead of measuring the water realistically. So I go with Imam Abu Hanifah is this regard.

THE RUNNING WATER:

It is notable that running water is analogous to stagnant water, in all aforementioned rulings. [Al-Insaf, vol.1, p.59]

If filth, except human feces and urine, drops into a large quantity of water there are two possibilities:

a)    The filth may be in very small quantity, that disappears in the large water and none of its properties changes. In this case the entire water body is pure and clean.

b)    The filth may be in large quantity, but too small to change the entire water body, still does not disappear in short time and  persists in the water. However, some properties of water layers around this visible filth would be changed inevitably. In this case the layers of water that has been changed, are filthy, while the rest of the water body is pure and clean. [Al-Insaf, vol.1, p.63, Kashaf-ul-Qina’a, vol.1, p.35]

 

If a person observes that some filth has been added to water and its properties do not change, but he can’t decide at the spot, whether the quantity of water is small or large, and he needs water at that time, in this case he should consider the water filthy for the sake of precaution. [Al-Insaf, vol.1, p.71-72, Kashaf-ul-Qina’a, vol.1, p.43]

When a person knows about the water that it is filthy, he should inform the other people about its impurity, who intend to use that water. [Al-Insaf, vol.1, p.76]

Abdullah bin Abbas (May Allah be pleased with them) reported that the Allah’s Apostle (May Allah shower His blessings and peace on him) said, “Deen (religion) is the name of good advice.”

[Musnad Imam Ahmad:H.3281]

 

 

 

 


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