Showing posts with label garments. Show all posts
Showing posts with label garments. Show all posts

Saturday, December 11, 2021

Lawful and Unlawful Vessels

 

Lawful and Unlawful Vessels

Lawful and Unlawful Vessels

Author: Sajid Mahmood Ansari

Vessel (Arabic: Aaniyah) means any hollow vessel that can hold or contain something. The reason for listing this topic in books of Fiqh, after types of water immediately, is the frequent use of vessels to hold and preserve water, for daily use. Though the rulings discussed here are not confined to water vessels only, but it discusses all types of vessels, that humans use in their daily life for drinking, eating, washing, measuring, storing, or transporting all sorts of commodities.

LAWFUL VESSELS

The vessels made of all types of pure materials like soil, stones, wood, glass, skin, metals, alloys are lawful to use, except two metals i.e gold and silver. [Kashaf-ul-Qina’a: vol.1, p.46]

The things are lawful to use in general unless Shariah prohibits use of a specific thing. Allah Almighty says:

“It is He who created for you all of that which is on the earth.” [2:29]

So the vessels made of aforementioned materials, excluding gold and silver, are lawful to use for all purposes like drinking, eating, washing, measuring, storing, transporting and shopping etc. [Tayseer Masaayel al-Fiqh, vol.1, p.64]

 

The following Hadiths also indicate the permissibility of aforementioned materials:

          Anas bin Malik (May Allah be pleased with him) reported that Allah's Apostle (May Allah shower His blessings and peace on him) said, “I did forbid you to drink Nabeedh (Date-syrup) in a few vessels, now drink in any vessel, that you want. [Musnad Imam Ahmad:H.13521]

Abdullah bin Zaid (May Allah be pleased with him) reported that once Allah’s Apostle (May Allah shower His blessings and peace on him) came to us and we brought out water for him in a brass vessel, then he performed ablution. [Sahih Bukhari:H.197, Sahih Muslim:235, Sunan Abu Dawood:H.118, Jami at-Tirmidhi:H.32, Sunan Ibni Mjah:H.434]

Abdullah bin Abbas (May Allah be pleased with them) reported that Allah’s Apostle (May Allah shower His blessings and peace on him) fasted during Ramadhan and Muslims fasted with him as well. When the Prophet (May Allah shower His blessings and peace on him) reached Al-Kadid he  asked for a wooden bowl of water and drank it, while he was on his dromedary, and people were looking at him and came to know that he had broken the fast, so the Muslims also broke the fast (for the hardship of travelling).

[Musnad Imam Ahmad:H.2363]

Durrah binti Abu Lahab (May Allah be pleased with her) reported that I was present in the company of Ayeshah  (May Allah be pleased with her) and  Allah’s Apostle (May Allah shower His blessings and peace on him) came there and said, “Fetch me water for ablution.” Then I and Ayeshah  (May Allah be pleased with her) rushed towards an earthen jug, but I grabbed it. I held it and he performed ablution. [Musnad Imam Ahmad:H.24891]

          However, the vessels made of unclean material or used for holding filthy materials is impermissible to use, until they are cleansed properly, as directed by Shariah. Allah Almighty says:

Keep your clothes clean, and keep yourself away from filth.” [74:4-5]

Abu Tha’alabah Al-Khushni (May Allah be pleased with him) reported that I said, “O’ Allah’s Apostle (May Allah shower His blessings and peace on him) we live in the country of the People of the Book, indeed they eat pork and drink wine, so what we do with their utensils?” He said, “If you do not find the utensils except theirs, then wash them with water and cook in them and drink.” [Musnad Imam Ahmad:H.17889]

PROHIBITION OF VESSELS MADE OF GOLD AND SILVER:

The precious materials like gem stones or precious metals (like platinum) are lawful to use for making vessels and using them, except gold and silver.

The following Hadiths forbid using vessels made of gold and silver, both for a male and a female:

Hudhaifah bin al-Yaman (May Allah be pleased with him) reported that I heard Allah’s Apostle (May Allah shower His blessings and peace on him) saying, “Don’t drink in the vessels of gold and silver; and don’t wear silk and brocade. Verily luxuries are for them in this world and for you in Hereafter.”[Musnad Imam Ahmad:H.23703, 23756, Sahih Bukhari: H.5426, Sahih Muslim:2067]

Ummi Salma (May Allah be pleased with her) reported that Allah’s Apostle (May Allah shower His blessings and peace on him) said, “Verily! Whoever drinks in a vessel made of silver, he fills his abdomen with hell fire.” [Musnad Imam Ahmad:H.27103, 27117, 27130, 27146 , Sahih Bukhari: H.5634, Sahih Muslim:2065]

The permissibility of precious materials, other than gold and silver, is drawn from the general Islamic principle that everything is permissible to use, until it is prohibited by Shariah. However the use of vessels made of gem stones or platinum etc is discouraged for the sake of Taqwa (Fear of Allah). Allah Almighty says:

“Whoever desires the harvest of the Hereafter - We increase for him in his harvest. And whoever desires the harvest of this world - We give him thereof, but there is not for him in the Hereafter any share.” [42:20]

Noaman bin Bashir (May Allah be pleased with him) reported that he heard the Allah’s Apostle (May Allah shower His blessings and peace on him) saying: “Halal (lawful) is evident and Haram (unlawful) is evident too, but there are some doubtful things in between two. Most of the people do not know whether these are Halal or Haram. Whoever avoids doubtful things, he saved his Deen (religion) and honour. Whoever commits that (doubtful thing), he is like a shepherd who puts (his cattle) to graze around a pasture, so he is more likely to get enter into it. Lo’ every king has his pasture, and pasture of Allah on His earth is that He has prohibited.”

[Musnad Imam Ahmad:H.18558, 18564, 18565, 18574, 18602, 18608,  Sahih Bukhari: H.52, Sahih Muslim:1599]

 

VESSELS COPLATED WITH GOLD AND SILVER:

Gold plating is a method of depositing a thin layer of gold onto the surface of another metal, most often copper or silver (to make silver-gilt), by chemical or electrochemical plating.

The vessels plated with gold and silver are like vessels made of these metals, in this regard. [Al-Insaf: vol.1, p.81, Kashaf-ul-Qina’a: vol.1, p.47]

The following Hadith leads scholars to the aforementioned ruling:

Abu Hurairah (May Allah be pleased with him) reported that the  Allah’s Apostle (May Allah shower His blessings and peace on him) said: “When I forbid you from something, avoid it at all and when I command you to do something, do it to make you exhausted.

[Musnad Imam Ahmad:H.7361, 9519, 10716,  Sahih Bukhari: H.7288, Sahih Muslim:H.1337]

VALIDITY OF PERFORMING PURIFICATION USING VESSELS MADE OF GOLD AND SILVER:

If a person performs ritual purification by using vessels made of gold and silver, or misappropriated vessels, the purification is valid, though he is sinful for using these vessels. The reason behind this ruling lies that the water is not considered unclean by preserving in these vessels.

[Al-Insaf: vol.1, p.81 Kashaf-ul-Qina’a: vol.1, p.48]

 

VESSELS SOLDERED WITH GOLD AND SILVER:

Soldering is a process in which two or more metal items are joined together by melting and flowing a filler metal (solder) into the joint, the filler metal having a lower melting point than the adjoining metal.

Vessels soldered with gold and silver are prohibited to use in general, except if it is soldered with a slight amount of silver for necessity, rather than ornamental purpose.

[Al-Insaf: vol.1, p.82, Kashaf-ul-Qina’a: vol.1, p.48]

The evidence for the first part of this ruling is same that is for the gold plated vessels. While the evidence for the second part of ruling is as follows:

Anas bin Malik (May Allah be pleased with him) reported that the Allah’s Apostle (May Allah shower His blessings and peace on him) possessed a bowl that was broken, so he soldered it with a patch of silver. [Sahih Bukhari:H.3109]

This Hadith shows the permissibility of soldering with slight amount of silver, as the drinking bowls are small, generally; so the reported soldering would have been in small amount. While, gold remained on its previous ruling because gold is not allowed in any report for soldering. Moreover, there is more emphasis on prohibition of gold in the Prophetic narrations, like golden ring is prohibited for men, whereas, silver ring is allowed for them.

Filling engraved designs on vessels made of other metals, with gold or silver, is also forbidden.

[Al-Insaf: vol.1, p.81 Kashaf-ul-Qina’a: vol.1, p.47]

VESSELS AND GARMENTS OF DISBELIEVERS:

Vessels and garments used by all kinds of disbelievers are pure originally, provided that they are free of external filth like wine, urine etc.

[Al-Insaf: vol.1, p.85 Kashaf-ul-Qina’a: vol.1, p.48]

The permissibility of using disbelievers’ vessels is derived from the following  Hadiths:

Imran bin Husain (May Allah be pleased with him) reported that the Allah’s Apostle (May Allah shower His blessings and peace on him) performed Wudhu (ablution), with water taken from water-skin of a female disbeliever. [Sahih Bukhari: H.344, 595, Sahih Muslim:H.682]

Abdullah bin Abbas and Abu Hurairah (May Allah be pleased with them) reported that the Jews of Khaybar offered mutton to the Allah’s Apostle (May Allah shower His blessings and peace on him) that was actually toxic. He accepted it and when he took a limb, he was informed that it was toxic. He stopped eating at once and ordered his Companions to stop.

[Musnad Imam Ahmad:H.9826, Sahih Bukhari:H.3169, Sunan Abu Dawood:H.4510, Sunan Darmi:H.68]

Jabir bin Abdullah (May Allah be pleased with him) reported that we used to fight along with the Allah’s Apostle (May Allah shower His blessings and peace on him) and we found the utensils for eating and drinking of the polytheists then we used them, but no body would detest it.

[Musnad Imam Ahmad:H.15119, Sunan Abu Dawood:H.3838]

However, if disbelievers’ vessels are impure or their impurity is most probable, then they can be used after washing them.

Abu Tha’alabah Al-Khushni (May Allah be pleased with him) reported that I said, “O’ Allah’s Apostle (May Allah shower His blessings and peace on him) we live in the country of the People of the Book, indeed they eat pork and drink wine, so what we do with their utensils?” He said, “If you do not find the utensils except theirs, then wash them with water and cook in them and drink.” [Musnad Imam Ahmad:H.17889]

The Prophet (May Allah shower His blessings and peace on him) suspended the use of disbelievers’ vessels, on the unavailability of other vessels that were not used by them. In addition to that he commanded to wash their vessels before using. So washing their vessels, before using, is preferable.

One should not be annoyed by this ruling, because, vessels are generally washed after use, in all the communities, to avoid germs and dirt. Even disbelievers do not use the vessels without washing, used by their own community members, but if used by their own. So there is no wonder if Mulslims do not use the vessels used by non-Muslims. It is not for hatred but to avoid dirt and filth.

The garments used by disbelievers are considered pure if no filth is confirmed on them. However, it is safer to avoid their lower garments like under garments, pants, trousers, nickers, skirts etc, preferably, while offering  Salaah. [Kashaf-ul-Qina’a: vol.1, p.48, Manarus Sabeel, vol.1, p.21]

Likewise, offering Salaah is disliked, in garments of a female disbeliever who is undergoing menstrual cycle or post-partum bleeding, if there is no blood stains on them. If blood stains are confirmed on them, then they can’t be used without washing properly. [Ar-Raudh-ul-Murbi: p.23]

Ali bin Abu Talib (May Allah be pleased with him) reported that Ukaydir of Dumat-ul-Jjandal gifted a silk dress or cloth to the Allah’s Apostle (May Allah shower His blessings and peace on him) and he gifted it to me for my wives.[Musnad Imam Ahmad:H.1077, Sahih Muslim:H.2071]

The vessels and dresses prepared or manufactured by disbelievers are pure, till something impure is confirmed onto them. [Kashaf-ul-Qina’a: vol.1, p.48]

Ali bin Abu Talib (May Allah be pleased with him) reported that Ukaydir of Dumat-ul-Jjandal gifted a silk dress or cloth to the Allah’s Apostle (May Allah shower His blessings and peace on him) and he gifted it to me for my wives.[Musnad Imam Ahmad:H.1077, Sahih Muslim:H.2071]

 


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