Showing posts with label ghusl. Show all posts
Showing posts with label ghusl. Show all posts

Saturday, December 11, 2021

Cleansing Water Required for Ablution



Cleansing Water Required for Ablution

Cleansing Water Required For Ablution

Author: Sajid Mahmood Ansari

Water is the major substance to get cleansed, both from Hadath and Najasah.

The Shari'ah has divided water into three types:

(i)                Cleansing Water

(ii)             Clean but not Cleansing   

(iii)           Filthy Water

CLEANISING WATER:

It is the clean water, acquired from natural sources like rain, sea, river, lake, canal, well etc. Generally, it is colourless, odourless and tasteless; however, in some cases it may be salty or muddy. It is not only clean itself, but has the ability to purify.

Rain Water:

(a) Allah Almighty says:

And He it is Who sends the Winds as heralds of glad tidings going before His Mercy and We send down cleanising water from the sky.” [25:48]

Remember He covered you with a sort of drowsiness to give you calm as from Himself and He caused rain to descend on you from heaven to clean you therewith to remove from you the stain of Satan to strengthen your hearts and to plant your feet firmly therewith.” [8:11]

River / Canal Water:

Allah Almighty says:

See you the water which you drink? Do you bring it Down (in rain) from the Cloud or do We?” [56:68-69]

It is already mentioned that rain water is clean. This rain water flows in the form of rivers and streams.

Sea Water:

Allah Almighty says:

And two seas are not alike: this, fresh, sweet, food to drink, this (other) bitter, salt. And from them both you eat fresh meat and derive the ornament that you wear.” [35:12]

Of course, drinking water from sweet aquifers in the sea, is clean and sanctity of sea food (Fresh Meat) proves that sea water is clean.

Abu Hurairah (May Allah be pleased with him) reported that a man said to the Allah’s Apostle (May Allah shower His blessings and peace on him), “ O’ Allah’s Apostle! We travel through the sea, and we have a little (sweet) water; if we perform Wudhu (ablution) with that water, we shall be left thirsty, so may we perform Wudhu with sea water? the Allah’s Apostle ( May Allah shower His blessings and peace on him) said, “Sea water is purifier and (eating) its dead (animal) is permissible.”

 [Musnad Imam Ahmad:H.7232, 8720, 8899, 9088, 9089, Sunan Abu Dawood:H.83, Jami at-Tirmidhi:H.69, Sunan Ibni Majah:H.386,3246, Sahih Ibni Khuzaimah:H.111, Sahih Ibni Hibban:H.1243]

Underground Water:

Allah Almighty says:

And there is not a thing but with Us are the stores thereof. And We send it not down save in appointed measure. And We send the winds fertilizing, and cause water to descend from the sky, and give it you to drink. It is not you who are the holders of the store thereof.” [15:21-22]

And We send down water from the sky according to (due) measure and We cause it to soak in the soil; and We certainly are able to drain it off.” [23:18]

Both the verses mentioned above allude to the underground water, that comes from the sky, and diffuses down through filtration making underground oceans. This underground water is drawn out through wells or water pumps.

Ali bin Abu Talib (May Allah be pleased with him) reported that the Allah’s Apostle ( May Allah shower His blessings and peace on him) ordered to fetch a container of water from Zamzam well, drank its water and performed Wudhu with it.

CLEAN BUT NOT CLEANSING

This is the second type of water that is inherently clean but loses its ability to purify. This water can be used for other purposes, like drinking, washing hands and face just to remove dust or dyes etc, taking bath just with intention of cooling body or removing dust, washing vessels, clothes or floor, that are not defiled with a filth.[Al-Insaf, vol.1, p.28, Kashaf-ul-Qina’a, vol.1, p.25]

The reason for this water being clean is that no filth has been added to it, so it retains its original clean quality. It is also concluded from the following Hadith:

Jabir (May Allah be pleased with him) reported that the Allah’s Apostle  (May Allah shower His blessings and peace on him) came to visit me while I was sick and unconscious. He performed ablution and sprinkled the remaining water on me and I became conscious and said, "O Allah's Apostle! To whom will my inheritance go as I have neither ascendants nor descendants?" Then the Divine verses regarding Fara'id (inheritance) were revealed.

[Musnad Imam Ahamad:H.14349,  Sahih Bukhari:H.194, 4577, Sahih Muslim:H.1616, Sahih Ibni Hibban:H.1266, Sahih Ibni Khuzaimah:H.106]

There are two types of this clean water:

(a) Water that loses its original colour, odour or taste, by dissolving something clean

(b) The water used for ritual purification

[1] When some clean substance is dissolved in water, that changes its dominant colour, odour or taste, it remains clean, but loses its ability to purify. The reason for this ruling is as following:

Allah Almighty says:

If you are sick, or on a journey, or one of you has used the toilet, or has had contact with women and can find no water, then make Tayammum, take some clean soil and rub your faces and hands with it. Allah is the Lenient, the Forgiving..” [4:43]

Abu Zar Al-Ghifari (May Allah be pleased with him) reported that the Allah’s Apostle (May Allah shower His blessings and peace on him) said, “Verily! Clean dust is a means of purification for you until you find water, even after ten years, and when you find water, clean your skin with it.”

[Musnad Imam Ahamad:H.21629, 21630, 21698, Sunan Abu Dawood: H.332, Jami at-Tirmidhi:H.124]

Shariah recommends TAYAMMUM (Dry Ablution with Dust), when someone can’t find water for ablution, instead of making ablution with other liquids like fruit juices, milk, oil and vinegar. Even Nabeedh (Date Syrup) can’t be used for ritual purification. The water, that loses its original properties by dissolving something clean, whether it is baked or not, is not allowed to use for ritual purification and removal of filth. For example when saphron, camphor, dye etc is added to water and it dominates water’s colour, odour or taste, then it loses its originality. Now the water is attributed to the substance dissolved in it. Likewise when some grains, flowers or fruits are baked in water, it again loses its originality and it is called now Rose Water, Barley Water etc. So, despite being clean, such altered water neither deletes ritual impurity nor removes filth. [Al-Insaf, vol.1, p.32-34, Kashaf-ul-Qina’a, vol.1, p.29]

There is an exception for dust/soil. When soil is added to water naturally or artificially, the water retains its ability to purify, provided that the water can flow normally, retaining its liquidity, without turning into mud. The reason for this exception is that Shariah considers soil, a mean of ritual purification, as described in the aforementioned verse and Hadith.  [Al-Insaf, vol.1, p.35, Kashaf-ul-Qina’a, vol.1, p.29]

THE USED WATER:

The water that has been used for washing body or some of its parts in case of lifting ritual impurity, like obligatory Wudhu (Ablution) or Ghusl (Ritual Bath), is considered clean but loses its ability to purify. It is the water that flows over the body and drops down, while making ritual purification. It does not imply to the water left over in the container, provided that he/she washed his/her hand three times before putting it into the container. Dropping of a few drops of used water into the container, unintentionally, does not affect the originality of water, because, minuscule is overlooked in general.

[Al-Insaf, vol.1, p.36, Kashaf-ul-Qina’a, vol.1, p.29-30]

Abu Hurairah (May Allah be pleased with him) reported that the Allah’s Apostle ( May Allah shower His blessings and peace on him) said, " None of you should take bath in stagnant water, when he is post sexually defiled.” They said, “O’ Abu Hurairah! What should he do?” He replied, “He should take out water (by means of a vessel).”

[Sahih Muslim:283, Sunan Ibni Majah:H.605]

When a person, who requires ritual purification, puts his hand into small quantity of water with intention of purification, without washing it three times, it is also considered used water, that can’t be used for ritual purification. That is why Allah’s Apostle (May Allah shower His blessings and peace on him) forbade to take bath in stagnant water, because water will turn ‘used’ by inserting any body part into it. See detail in next foot note.

 

Abu Hurairah (May Allah be pleased with him) reported that the Allah’s Apostle ( May Allah shower His blessings and peace on him) said, "Whoever wakes up from his sleep should wash his hands thrice before putting them in the water for ablution, because nobody knows where his hands were during sleep."

[Musnad Imam Ahamad:H.7590, 7802, Sahih Bukhari:H.194, 4577, Sahih Muslim:278]

However, washing hands before putting into water or touching any food, is recommended all the time for every person, Muslim or Non-Muslim, children or elders, whether they do not sleep at all, whether they have no intention of ritual purification, whether the water in the vessel  or food is  large in quantity.

Salman Al-Farisi (May Allah be pleased with him) reported that I read in Taurah that there is blessing in washing hands after taking meal. I told Allah’s Apostle (May Allah shower His blessings and peace on him) what I read in Taurah. He said, “There is blessing in washing hands before and after meal.” [Musnad Imam Ahamad:H.24133]

Mansoor bin Younus Al-Buhuti Al-Hanbali (R.A) said:

“Washing hands before meal is Sunnah (recommended) and after it as well.” [Ar-Raudh-ul-Murbi:P.419]

FILTHY WATER

The filthy water, that is forbidden to use, except in a case of necessity, neither lifts impurity nor removes filth. It is the water, when Najasah (filth) drops into it and it is small in quantity (though its properties do not change), or it is in large quantity and one of its properties changed.

When filth mixes with water, there may be two possibilities:

WHEN WATER IS SMALL IN QUANTITY:

If clean water is small in quantity and some unclean substance or filth drops into it, it turns unclean and filthy, whether none of its properties changes.

Abu Hurairahh (May Allah be pleased with him) reported that the Allah’s Apostle ( May Allah shower His blessings and peace on him) said, "If a dog drinks from the utensil of anyone of you it is essential to wash it seven times."

[Musnad Imam Ahamad:H.7440 Sahih Bukhari:H.172, Sahih Muslim: H.279, Sahih Ibni Hibban:H.1296, Sahih Ibni Khuzaimah:H.98]

This Hadith indicates that dog’s saliva makes small quantity of water unclean, whereas its saliva does not change colour, odour or taste of that water generally.

The following Hadith also fortifies this ruling:

Kabshah, daughter of Ka’b bin Malik (May Allah be pleased with him) and wife of Ibni Abu Qatadah, reported that Abu Qatadah (May Allah be pleased with him) visited (me) and I poured out water for him for ablution. A cat came and drank some of it and he tilted the vessel for it until it drank some of it. Kabshah said: He saw me looking at him (with wonder); he asked me: Are you surprised, my niece? I said: Yes. He then reported the Messenger of Allah (May Allah shower His blessings and peace on him) as saying: It is not unclean; it is one of those (males or females) who go round among you.

 [Musnad Imam Ahamad:H.22950, 23013, Sunan Abu Dawood:H.75, Jami at-Tirmidhi:H.92, Sahih Ibni Hibban:H.1299, Sahih Ibni Khuzaimah:H.104]

Kabshah bint Ka’ab was surprised thinking that the little water would get unclean when a cat drinks from it, assuming the cat unclean. The companion of the Messenger of Allah (May Allah shower His blessings and peace on him) Abu Qatadah (May Allah be pleased with him), confirmed her perception in a way and rejected her assumption on the other hand, by declaring that cat and its saliva is not unclean. His words prove that if the cat’s saliva would be unclean, the little water in the utensil would become unclean.

Here are more examples for avoiding small amount of filth when mixed in water:

Salama bin Al-Akwa’a (May Allah be pleased with him) reported that we went out with the Prophet (May Allah shower His blessings and peace on him) to Khaibar. A man among the people said, "O’ Amir! Will you please recite to us some of your poetic verses?” So Amir got down and started chanting among them, saying, “By Allah! Had it not been for Allah, we would not have been guided. “Amir also said other poetic verses which I do not remember. Allah’s Apostle said, “Who is this (camel) driver?” The people said, “He is Amir bin Al-Akwa’a.” He said, “May Allah bestow His Mercy on him.” A man from the People said, “O’ Allah’s Apostle! Would that you let us enjoy his company longer.” When the people (Muslims) lined up, the battle started, and Amir was struck with his own sword (by chance) by himself and died. In the evening, the people made a large number of fires (for cooking meals). Allah’s Apostle (May Allah shower His blessings and peace on him) said, ”What is this fire? What are you making the fire for?” They said, “For cooking the meat of donkeys.” He said, “Throw away what is in the pots and break the pots!” A man said, “O’ Allah’s Prophet! May we throw away what is in them and wash them?” He said, “Never mind, you may do so.”

[Musnad Imam Ahamad:H.16640, Sahih Bukhari:H.2477, Sahih Muslim: H.1802, Sahih Ibni Hibban:H.5276]

Abu Tha’alabah al-Khushni (May Allah be pleased with him) reported that I said, “O’ Allah’s Apostle (May Allah shower His blessings and peace on him) we live in the country of the People of the Book, indeed they eat pork and drink wine, so what we do with their utensils?” He said, “If you do not find the utensils except theirs, then wash them with water and cook in them and drink.” [Musnad Imam Ahmad:H.17889]

Hasan Basri r.a (d. 110 H) was asked if a few drops of wine or blood, get mixed with water in a container, he commanded to pour it out. [Musannaf Ibni Abi Shaybah:H.1772]

These Hadiths reveal the general trend of Allah’s Apostle (May Allah shower His blessings and peace on him), his companions (May Allah be pleased with them) and their descendants, regarding slight amount of filth, even if it does not alter the properties of water apparently.

(b) WHEN WATER IS LARGE IN QUANTITY:

The water that’s volume is equal or greater than two QULLAHS is considered large in quantity, according to Hanbali madhab. When water is large in quantity and something unclean or filth drops into it, there are two possibilities:

(i)    The colour, odour or taste of this water may be changed. In this case the water is impure/unclean and unlawful to use for purification. All Muslim scholars agree on this issue.

Abu Umamah al-Bahily (May Allah be pleased with him) reported that the Allah’s Apostle (May Allah shower His blessings and peace on him) said, “Nothing makes water unclean, except that changes its odour, taste or colour.”

[Sunan Ibni Majah:H.521]   

It is notable that impurity of water is Najasah Hukmiyah (Ritual Filth), because it can be cleansed, while Najasah Ayniyah (Physical Filth) can’t be cleansed.

[Al-Insaf, vol.1, p.64]

(ii) If human poo or urine mixes up with large quantity of water, and none of the characteristics of water get changed. In this case the water is considered filthy. The author (Maryee bin Yousuf r.a) and majority of the later scholars do not make any exception for human feces and urine, while great majority of former Hanbali scholars, including Muhammad bin Husain Al-Khirqi, Qadhi Abu Ya’ala, Ibni Abdoos, Abu Muhammad Ibni Qudamah Al-Maqdasi, Abu Abdullah Muhammad bin Abdullah Az-Zarkashi etc view that if human feces or urine  drops into large quantity of water, it turns uncleanclean, even if none of its characteristics change at all, except when the water body is so large, that it can’t be drained out without extreme difficulty, like large pools. Three pupils of Imam Ahmad bin Hanbal r.a, Salih bin Ahmad, Al-Maruzi and Abu Talib r.a, reported this view from him.

[Al-Insaf, vol.1, p.60-63, Kashaf-ul-Qina’a, vol.1, p.37-38, Al-Mughni, vol.1, p.37 , Sharh Az-Zarkashi, vol.1, p. 14-17]

The following Hadith supports the view of former scholars.

Abu Hurairah (May Allah be pleased with him) reported that the Allah’s Apostle (May Allah shower His blessings and peace on him) said, “Do not urinate in stagnant water, that does not flow, then do not take bath in it after urinating.”

[Musnad Imam Ahmad:H.8171, Sahih Bukhari:H.239, Sahih Muslim:H.282]

So it is better and safer to avoid using water in which human feces or urine is added, even if the characteristics of water do not change, except when the water body is very large.

HOW TO DECIDE THE QIATITY OF WATER IS LARGE OR SMALL?

 The Muslim scholars strongly differ on how to decide the quantity of water is large or small? Imam Shafiyee and Imam Ahmad bin Hanbal decides this by the following Hadith reported by Abdullah bin Umar (May Allah be pleased with him):

Abdullah bin Umar (May Allah be pleased with them) reported that the Allah’s Apostle ( May Allah shower His blessings and peace on him) was asked about water in desert country and what is frequented by animals and wild beasts. He replied: When there is enough water to fill two  Qullahs (pitchers), it bears no impurity.

[Musnad Imam Ahamad:H.4605, 4753, 4803, 4961, 5855,  Sunan Abu Dawood:H.63, 64, 65, Jami at-Tirmidhi:H.67, Sunan Ibni Majah:H.517, 518, Sahih Ibni Hibban:H.1249, Sahih Ibni Khuzaimah:H.92]

While Imam Abu Hanifah (R.A) declares this Hadith weak on the ground that the issue discussed in this Hadith is not a private one, but every Muslim faces such a situation. So it is impossible that such a significant matter would have been narrated only through a single Companion, even with confused words. So he opines that it depends on the person’s perception that faces such a situation. It is important to note that even if we go with the aforementioned Hadith, in most of the cases a person has to rely upon its perception instead of measuring the water realistically. So I go with Imam Abu Hanifah is this regard.

THE RUNNING WATER:

It is notable that running water is analogous to stagnant water, in all aforementioned rulings. [Al-Insaf, vol.1, p.59]

If filth, except human feces and urine, drops into a large quantity of water there are two possibilities:

a)    The filth may be in very small quantity, that disappears in the large water and none of its properties changes. In this case the entire water body is pure and clean.

b)    The filth may be in large quantity, but too small to change the entire water body, still does not disappear in short time and  persists in the water. However, some properties of water layers around this visible filth would be changed inevitably. In this case the layers of water that has been changed, are filthy, while the rest of the water body is pure and clean. [Al-Insaf, vol.1, p.63, Kashaf-ul-Qina’a, vol.1, p.35]

 

If a person observes that some filth has been added to water and its properties do not change, but he can’t decide at the spot, whether the quantity of water is small or large, and he needs water at that time, in this case he should consider the water filthy for the sake of precaution. [Al-Insaf, vol.1, p.71-72, Kashaf-ul-Qina’a, vol.1, p.43]

When a person knows about the water that it is filthy, he should inform the other people about its impurity, who intend to use that water. [Al-Insaf, vol.1, p.76]

Abdullah bin Abbas (May Allah be pleased with them) reported that the Allah’s Apostle (May Allah shower His blessings and peace on him) said, “Deen (religion) is the name of good advice.”

[Musnad Imam Ahmad:H.3281]

 

 

 

 


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