Showing posts with label latrine. Show all posts
Showing posts with label latrine. Show all posts

Sunday, December 12, 2021

Manners of Using Lavatory

 

Manners of Using Lavatory

Manners of Using Lavatory

A Chapter from Daleel At-Talib (A Hanbali Fiqh Textbook)

Translation & Notes by: Sajid Mahmood Ansari

Al-Istinjaa means removal of the filth that comes out from the two pores (front and back)[1] with purifying water[2] or clean, lawful and clean stone[3], though after cleaning with stone or like[4], the mark of filth retains and cannot be removed but with water[5]. Wiping less than three times, is not permissible, while whole spot should be wiped each time[6]. Cleansing with water should bring back the  original roughness (of skin), as it was; presumption suffices for this[7]. Istinjaa with stone then with water is Sunnah (recommended)[8], vice versa is offensive[9], though relying upon anyone is permissible[10], but, (cleaning with) water is preferable[11]. Facing Qiblah and turning back towards it, while  making Istinja, is offensive[12]; it is forbidden with dung, bone and food, even of the animals[13], if it was proceeded, then purification will be possible only with water, as when the filth exceeds the regular spot[14].

Istinjaa is obligatory when comes out anything, except the clean one or the filth that does not stick with the spot.[15]

When a person enters a lavatory (or separated area), it is Sunnah (recommended) for him to step into left foot first and say:

بسم اللہ

اللھم انی اعوذبک من الخبث والخبائث

 “In the name of Allah, I seek refuge in Allah Almighty from male and female evil spirits.” [16]

And when he exits, step out right foot first and say:

غفرانک

الحمدللہ الذی اذھب عنی الاذی و عافانی

 “Your forgiveness, all praise be to Allah Almighty who removed filth from me and secured me.”[17]

While relieving, it is offensive to face the sun, the moon[18] and the opposing direction of the wind;[19] speaking,[20] urinating in a pot,[21] a burrow,[22] fire and ash. Urinating in standing position is not offensive.[23] It is forbidden to face or turn back towards Qiblah, in open country, without a barrier, however, hiding lower part is sufficient.[24] Moreover, urinating or defecating on the regular thoroughfares or in the useful shadow, under a tree with desirable fruit,[25] between the graves of the Muslims[26] and remaining there (in the privy) for a period longer than the time required,[27] is also forbidden.



[1] Urine and feces

[2] Characteristics of purifying water has been discussed in lesson no.1

[3] While relieving oneself, clean, lawful and clean stone is second option for cleaning

[4] Other objects that can be used as  alternative to stone may be a twig, patch of a cloth or paper etc [Al-Insaf: vol.1, p.109, Manarus Sabeel:vol.1, p.22]

[5] The mark of filth remains on the spot after removing filth with stone or like. This amount of filth is forgiven, because it is impossible to remove this mark without washing.

[6] CLEANSING FILTH WITH STONE:

When one cleans the filth with stone, he is required to clean the whole spot thrice.

Jabir bin Abdullah (May Allah be pleased with him) reported that the Apostle of Allah (May Allah shower His blessings and peace on him) said: “When you cleanse yourself with stone, cleanse thrice.”

[Musnad Imam Ahmad:H.15370, Sahih Ibni Khuzaymah:H.76]

Ayesha (May Allah be pleased with her) reported that  the Apostle of Allah (May Allah shower His blessings and peace on him) said: “When any of you goes to relieve himself, he should take with him three stones to cleanse himself, for they will be enough for him.”

[Musnad Imam Ahmad:H.25280, Sunan Abu Dawood:H.40]

Abu Hurairah (May Allah be pleased with him) reported that the Apostle of Allah (May Allah shower His blessings and peace on him) commanded to use three stones (for cleansing filth).

[Musnad Imam Ahmad:H.7403]

[7] When one cleans oneself with water, after easing or urinating, the original roughness of skin should be restored. In this case even a small amount of filth is not forgiven.

[8] CLEANSING FILTH WITH STONE AND THEN WASHING WITH WATER:

It is recommended that one should cleanse the filth with stone or like and then wash with water.

Ayesha (May Allah be pleased with her) reported that the women from Basrah came to her. She said to them, “Ask your spouses to remove the mark of easing and urinating with water because we feel shy to forbid them, while it was the practice of Allah’s Apostle (May Allah shower His blessings and peace on him).” [Musnad Imam Ahmad:H.25130, 25402, Jami At-Tirmidhi:H.19, Sahih Ibni Hibban:H.1443]

[9] Washing with water and then using stones is offensive for being against Sunnah.

[10] Relying on any one practice i.e washing with water or using stones, is permissible because both are reported from the Prophet (May Allah shower His blessings and peace ion him).

[11] Cleansing with water is preferable because it was the frequent practice of the Prophet (May Allah shower His blessings and peace ion him).

Anas bin Malik (May Allah be pleased with him) reported that whenever the Apostle of Allah (May Allah shower His blessings and peace on him) used to go to ease himself, I brought water and he washed himself with it.

[Musnad Imam Ahmad:H.12124, Sahih Bukhari:H.217, Sahih Muslim:H.271]

[12] While a person cleanses himself after relieving, it is offensive for him to face Qiblah or turn back towards it.

[13] FORBIDDEN OBJECT FOR CLEANSING THE FILTH:

Removing filth with dung, bone and food is forbidden for these Hadiths:

Abdullah bin Masood (May Allah be pleased with him) reported that once the Apostle of Allah (May Allah shower His blessings and peace on him) went out for relieving himself and he ordered me to search three stones for him. I brought two stones and one dropping of donkey. He took the stones and dropped the dung and said that it was filth.

[Musnad Imam Ahmad:H.3966, Sahih Bukhari:H.156]

Jabir bin Abdullah (May Allah be pleased with him) reported that the Apostle of Allah (May Allah shower His blessings and peace on him) forbade to cleanse oneself with dung or bone.

[Musnad Imam Ahmad:H.12668, Sahih Muslim:H.263]

Abdullah bin Masood (May Allah be pleased with him) reported that the Apostle of Allah (May Allah shower His blessings and peace on him) said to Jinns, “When you pick a bone that has been recited Allah’s name on it, will bear meat on it and the droppings of animals are food for your beasts.” Then he said to us, “Don’t cleanse yourself with those two objects( bone and droppings) because these are useful for brothers from jinns.

[Musnad Imam Ahmad:H.4149, Sahih Muslim:H.3258, Sahih Ibni Khuzaymah:H.5267, Sahih Ibni Hibban:H.632]

This Hadith indicates that food of animals is also forbidden for using to cleanse oneself.

Imam Mansoor bin Younus Al-Buhooti rahimahullah mentions the venerable objects among those that are forbidden to use for cleansing oneself; like paper with names of Allah or any Prophet.

[14] If one uses dung, bone or food for cleansing himself after relieving, then he is obliged to cleanse himself with water, because he is still unclean. If he uses other alternatives save water, then he will be not cleansed. Same ruling applies if the filth exceeds the normal spot of filth. Same ruling applies to other impure objects. [Al-Insaf:vol.1, p.111]

[15] ISTINJA IS OBLIGATORY:

Removing filth is obligatory whatever unclean substance or object comes out of the pores like urine, faeces, blood and Madhi (prostatic fluid), except the objects that are clean like breaking wind or the impure objects that do not stick with the spot like round worms, because no filth is stuck with the spot in this case. However in case of round worms, it is recommended, not obligatory, to wash the spot.

Miqdad bin al-Aswad (May Allah be pleased with him) reported that Ali ibn AbuTalib (May Allah be pleased with him) commanded him to ask the Apostle of Allah (May Allah shower His blessings and peace on him) what a man should do when he plays with his wife and the prostatic fluid comes out (at this moment), rather than the fluid of life (semen). (He said): I am ashamed of consulting him because of the position of his daughter. Al-Miqdad said: I asked the Apostle of Allah (May Allah shower His blessings and peace on him what a man should do when he plays with his wife and the prostatic fluid comes out (at this moment), rather than the fluid of life (semen). He said: “When any of you finds, he should wash his private part, and perform ablution as he does for prayer.”

 [Musnad Imam Ahmad:H.16845, 24809, Sunan Abu Dawood:H.211]

Ali bin Talq (May Allah be pleased with him) reported that the Apostle of Allah (May Allah shower His blessings and peace on him) said: “When any of you breaks wind during the prayer, he should turn away and perform ablution and repeat the prayer.”

[Musnad Imam Ahmad:H.24250, Sunan Abu Dawood:H.205, Jami At-Tirmidhi:H.1164, 1166]

[16] RECOMMENDED PHRASES WHILE ENTERING THE PRIVY:

Ali bin Abu Talib (May Allah be pleased with him) reported that the Apostle of Allah (May Allah shower His blessings and peace on him) said: “Saying بسم اللہ, is a barrier between giants and human private parts.” [Sunan Ibni Majah:H.297]

Anas bin Malik (May Allah be pleased with him) reported that when the Apostle of Allah (May Allah shower His blessings and peace on him) entered toilet, he used to say:

اللھم انی اعوذبک من الخبث والخبائث

[Musnad Imam Ahmad:H.11969, Sahih Bukhari:H.142, Sahih Muslim:H.375, Sunan Abu Dawood:H.4 Sunan Ibni Majah:H.298 Sahih Ibni Hibban: H.1407]

 

[17] RECOMMENDED PHRASES WHILE EXITING THE LAVATORY:

Ayesha (May Allah be pleased with her) reported that  when the Apostle of Allah (May Allah shower His blessings and peace on him) would come out of lavatory he used to say: غفرانک

[Musnad Imam Ahmad:H.25735, Sunan Abu Dawood:H.30, Jami At-Tirmidhi:H.7, Sunan Ibni Majah:H.300, Sahih Ibni Hibban:H.1444, Sahih Ibni Khuzaymah:H.90]

Anas bin Malik (May Allah be pleased with him) reported that when the Apostle of Allah (May Allah shower His blessings and peace on him) would come out of the toilet, he used to say:

الحمدللہ الذی اذھب عنی الاذی و عافانی

[Sunan Ibni Majah:H.301]

[18] FACING THE SUN AND THE MOON WHILE RELIEVING ONESELF:

This ruling is passed due to respect for big signs of Allah Almighty.

Jabir bin Abdullah Al-Ansari (May Allah be pleased with him) reported that the Apostle of Allah (May Allah shower His blessings and peace on him) said, “O’ People! Verily! The sun and the moon are two signs from the signs of Allah the Exalted.”

[Musnad Imam Ahmad:H.14470, Sahih Bukhari:H.1044, Sahih Muslim:H.901, 904]

[19] Urinating in opposing direction of the wind is offensive because urine may be sprinkled on the body or clothes due to fast blowing wind.

[20] SPEAKING WHILE RELIEVING:

Speaking without a necessity, while relieving oneself, is offensive.
Muhajir ibn Qunfudh (May Allah be pleased with him) reported that Muhajir came to the Prophet (May Allah shower His blessings and peace on him) while he was urinating. He saluted him. The Prophet (May Allah shower His blessings and peace on him) did not return the salutation to him until he performed ablution. He then apologised to him, saying: I disliked remembering Allah except in the state of purification.

[Musnad Imam Ahmad:H.19243, Sunan Abu Dawood:H.17, Sunan Ibni Majah:H.350, Sahih Ibni Hibban:H.803, Sahih Ibni Khuzaymah:H.206]

Abu Sa'id al-Khudri (May Allah be pleased with him) reported that I heard the Apostle of Allah (May Allah shower His blessings and peace on him) say: When two persons go together for relieving themselves uncovering their private parts and talking together, Allah, the Great and Majestic, becomes wrathful at this (action). [Sunan Abu Dawood:H.15]

[21] URINATING IN A POT:

Urinating in a pot without a necessity is offensive, because it is against the established Sunnah of the Prophet (May Allah shower His blessings and peace on him). However, in a case of a necessity, it is permissible to urinate in a pot like in case of severe cold or disease etc.

Umaymah daughter of Ruqayqah (May Allah be pleased with her) reported that the Prophet (May Allah shower His blessings and peace on him) had a wooden vessel under his bed in which he would urinate at night.

[Sunan Abu Dawood:H.25]

This might be happened in severe cold or in the days of the Prophet’s illness.

[22] URINATING IN A BURROW:

Abdullah ibn Sarjis (May Allah be pleased with him) reported that the Apostle of Allah (May Allah shower His blessings and peace on him) prohibited to urinate in a burrow.

[Musnad Imam Ahmad:H.21056, Sunan Abu Dawood:H.29]

[23] URINATING IN STANDING POSITION:

Urinating in standing position is permissible, provided that your body and clothes remain safe from sprinkles of urine.

Hudhaifah bin Al-Yaman (May Allah be pleased with him) reported that the Apostle of Allah (May Allah shower His blessings and peace on him) and I walked till we reached the dumps of some people. He stood, as any one of you stands, behind a wall and urinated. I went away, but he beckoned me to come. So I approached him and stood near his back till he finished.

[Musnad Imam Ahmad:H.23637, Sahih Bukhari:H.224, Sunan Abu Dawood:H.23]

It is notable that the established Sunnah of the Apostle of Allah (May Allah shower His blessings and peace on him) is urinating in sitting position, that is recommended for protecting oneself from urine sprinkle.

Abdur Rahman bin Hasanah (Be His mercy on him) reported: I and Amr ibn al-As (May Allah be pleased with him) went to the Prophet (May Allah shower His blessings and peace on him). He came out with a leather shield (in his hand). He covered himself with it and urinated (in sitting position). Then we said: Look at him. He is urinating as a woman does. The Prophet (May Allah shower His blessings and peace on him) heard this and said: Do you not know what befell a person from amongst Banu Isra'il (the children of Israel)? When urine fell on them, they would cut off the place where the urine fell; but he (that person) forbade them (to do so), and was punished in his grave.

[Musnad Imam Ahmad:H.17912, Sunan Abu Dawood:H.22]

Imam Ibni Hajr Al-Aasqlani said about this Hadith of Abdur Rahman bin Hasanah, “It is a Sahih Hadith, Imam Ad-Darqutni declared it Sahih.”

[Fathul Bari:vol.1, p.435, Under Hadith # 224]

Ayesha Siddiqa (May Allah be pleased with her) said that if someone inform you that the Prophet (May Allah shower His blessings and peace on him) urinated in standing position, don’t testify him because he (p.b.u.h) never urinated but in sitting posture, since when Qur’an has been revealed to him.

[Musnad Imam Ahmad:H.25559, Sunan Ibni Majah:H.307]

Apparently, Ayesha’s Hadith contradicts Hudhaifah’s one, but in reality there is no contradiction, because Ayesha (May Allah be pleased with her) reported the general practice of Prophet (May Allah shower His blessings and peace on him), while Hudhaifah (May Allah be pleased with him) reported an incidence that he observed but Ayesha (May Allah be pleased with her) was not aware of this incident. Allah knows the best.

So it is recommendable to pee sitting down. Latest scientific reports show that peeing sitting down is healthy and comfortable as compared to pee standing upright.

However, the Hadith attributed to Jabir (May Allah be pleased with him) (Sunan Ibni Majah:H.309) that forbids urinating in standing position is extremely weak that can’t stand against Hudhaifah’s authentic Hadith. Allah knows the best.

[24]FACING QIBLAH OR TURNING BACK TOWARDS IT:
It is Haram (prohibited) to face the Qiblah or turn one's back towards it while urinating or defecating out in the open. However, it is permissible inside buildings or where there is a screen between one and the Ka`bah, and that screen is close in front of the person facing the Qiblah or close behind if one's back is towards the Qiblah, such as a wall, a tree, a mountain and so on.

Abu Ayyub (May Allah be pleased with him) that the Prophet (saw) said, “Do not face toward the Qiblah nor turn your backs toward it when defecating or urinating, rather face toward the east or the west.”

[Musnad Imam Ahmad:H .23921, Sahih Bukhari:394, Sunan Abu Dawood:H.11]

It is notable that Qiblah in Madinah lies southwards, that is why the Messenger (May Allah shower His blessings and peace on him) ordered the inhabitants of Madinah to face the east or the west.

Abu Hurayrah (May Allah be pleased with him) reported that the Messenger of Allah (May Allah shower His blessings and peace on him) said, “When any one amongst you squats for answering the call of nature, he should neither turn his face towards the Qiblah nor turn his back towards it.”

[Musnad Imam Ahmad:H.7362, Sahih Muslim:H.265, Sahih Ibni Hibban:H.1431, Sahih Ibni Khuzaimah:H.80]

Marwan al-Asfar (Be His Mercy on him) said: I saw Ibn Umar (May Allah be pleased with him) make his camel kneel down facing the Qiblah, then he sat down urinating in its direction. So I said: Abu Abdur Rahman! has this not been forbidden? He replied: Why not, that was forbidden only in open country; but when there is something between you and the Qiblah that conceals you , then there is no harm.

[Musnad Imam Ahmad:H.21056, Sunan Abu Dawood:H.11]

Jabir bin Abdullah (May Allah be pleased with him) reported that the Messenger of Allah (May Allah shower His blessings and peace on him) forbade facing the Qiblah when urinating. But I saw him, one year before he died, facing the Qiblah (while urinating).

[Musnad Imam Ahmad:H.14933, Sunan Abu Dawood:H.13, Jami at-Tirmidhi:H.9, Sunan Ibni Majah:H.325, Sahih Ibni Khuzaimah:58, Sahih Ibni Hibban:H.1420]

Actually, in the early days after migration to Madinah, there were no constructed toilets, so the Muslims used to ease themselves in the open country. But after the conquest of Makkah in 8th year after Hijrah, many Muslims constructed toilets. That is why Jabir bin Abdullah (May Allah be pleased with him) saw the Messenger of Allah (May Allah shower His blessings and peace on him) easing himself in the constructed toilet, that did not exceed the human shoulders in height.

Still it is preferable to avoid facing or turning back towards Qiblah/Ka’abah, even when you urinate in closed toilets for the general command of the Messenger of Allah (May Allah shower His blessings and peace on him):

When any one amongst you squats for answering the call of nature, he should neither turn his face towards the Qiblah nor turn his back towards it.”

FACING BAITUL MAQDAS WHILE RELIEVING ONESELF:

While relieving in open country it is recommended to avoid facing or turning back towards Baitul Maqdas.

Ma’qil bin Abu Ma’qil (May Allah be pleased with him) reported that the Messenger of Allah (May Allah shower His blessings and peace on him) forbade to face both Qiblahs (Baitullah & Baitul Maqdas) while we urinate of defficate.

[Musnad Imam Ahmad:H.17992, Sunan Abu Dawood:H.10, Sunan Ibni Majah:H.319]

[25] This ruling is based on the legal principle that one should neither cause trouble to others nor he should be troubled. Relieving in thoroughfares or under the trees cause trouble or loss for others, so it is forbidden.

Abu Hurairah (May Allah be pleased with him) reported that the Apostle of Allah (May Allah shower His blessings and peace on him) said: Be on your guard against two things which provoke cursing: easing oneself on the thoroughfares and in the shade (of the tree).

[Musnad Imam Ahmad:H.21056, Sunan Abu Dawood:H.25]

Muadh bin Jabal (May Allah be pleased with him) reported that the Messenger of Allah (May Allah shower His blessings and peace on him) said: Be on your guard against three things which provoke cursing: easing in the watering places and on the thoroughfares, and in the shade (of the tree).

[Sunan Abu Dawood:H.26]

[26] RELIEVING ONESELF AMONG THE GRAVES:

Uqbah bin Aamir (May Allah be pleased with him) reported that the Apostle of Allah (May Allah shower His blessings and peace on him) said, “I am nothing if i relieve myself among the graves or in the middle of market.”

[Sunan Ibni Majah]

[27] Staying in the privy is a painstaking and undesirable action, but we have to do it for the call of nature. So staying there for a period longer than the required time in general, without a necessity, is forbidden. Moreover one remains naked in the privy, while keeping naked without a necessity is prohibited.

Abdullah bin Umar (May Allah be pleased with them) reported that the Apostle of Allah (May Allah shower His blessings and peace on him) said, “Don’t keep naked, because there are (angels) who accompany you and do not leave you alone, except in the privy or when a man fulfils his desire with his wife; So feel shy of them and respect them.”

[Jami At-Tirmidhi]


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