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In the Name of ALLAH, the Beneficent, the Merciful. Author :Sajid Mahmood Ansari Introduction: All praise is due to ALLAH and His blessi...

Thursday, March 18, 2021

The Ramadhan Rituals

 

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1.1:    RAMADHAN:

All praise is due to Allah Almighty, who is the Most Gracious and the Most Merciful. May He shower His countless blessings and mercy on His last Messenger Muhammad and his family.

Ramadhan is the 9th month of Islamic Lunar Calendar. It is the month of Divine blessings, mercy and the best rewards. Muslims are obliged to fast during day time for the whole moth.

Siyam (Fasting) is a kind of worship, avoiding certain things, from true dawn to sunset. The noun used for this practice in Arabic is Sawm (pl. Sayyam).

1.2: SIYAM-UR-RAMADHAN (FASTING IN RAMADHAN)

(A)    OBLIGATION:

(a)       Fasting the whole moth of Ramadhan is a unanimous obligation. Allah Almighty says:

“It is the month of Ramadhan in which the Qur’an was revealed, a guidance for mankind with clear teachings showing the Right Way and a criterion of truth and falsehood. Therefore, anyone of you who witnesses that month should fast therein.” [2:185]

Abu Hurairah (May Allah be pleased with him) reported that the Allah’s Apostle (May Allah shower His blessing and peace on him) said, “The blessed month has come to you. Allah has made fasting during it obligatory upon you. During it, the gates to Paradise are opened and the gates to hellfire are locked, and the devils are chained. There is a night [during this month] which is better than a thousand months. Whoever is deprived of its good is really deprived [of something great].

[Musnad Imam Ahmad:H.7148, 8979, 8980, 9493]

Ziyad bin Nuaym Al-Hadhrami (May Allah be pleased with him) reported that the Allah’s Apostle (May Allah shower His blessing and peace on him) said, “Allah Almighty has made four things obligatory in Islam, whoever would come with three of them, it would not suffice for him, until he would come with all of them, i.e Salat , Zakat,  Seyami Ramadhan and Hajj-ul-Bait.”

[Musnad Imam Ahmad:H.17942]

(b)       It is obliged to fast when Hilal (The New Crescent) of Ramadhan is sighted in any land of Muslims, even if only one trustworthy Muslim, with good character, testifies the sighting of Hilal after sunset in the western horizon. Sighting of Hilal in one region suffices the whole Ummah. Computed new moon/dark moon (Luni-solar Conjunction) does not decide the beginning of new lunar month, until new crescent is sighted, after the moon moves away from the sun about 10 degrees.

Allah Almighty says:

“They ask  you(O! Prophet) about Young Crescents, Say:These are the time standards for Hajj appointed for the people.” [2:189]

“ And for the Moon we have designed phases till it appears again like an old shrivelled palm-frond.” [36:39]

“He it is Who made the Sun a source of radiant light and the Moon a light (reflected) And determined for its phases that you might know how to compute the years and to count (time).” [10:5]

Abu Hurairah (May Allah be pleased with him) reported that I heard Abul Quasim (May Allah shower His blessings and peace on him) saying: “Begin fasting with observing (sighting) Hilal, and stop fasting with observing it (again).”

[Musnad Imam Ahmad:H. 9365, 9551, 9552, 9553, 9886, 10062, Sahih Bukhari:H. 1909, Sahih Muslim:H.1081]

A number of Messenger’s Companions (May Allah shower His blessingns and peace on him) reported that people fasted on morning to complete 30 days of Ramadhan, two villagers came there and both of them witnessed that they had observed Hilal in the previous evening, then the Messenger orderd to break the fast (before sunset).

[Musnad Imam Ahmad:H.19029, 23457, Sunan Abu Dawood:H.2339]

Abdullah bin Umar (May Allah be pleased with them) reported that people were trying to sight Hilal, then I informed Allah’s Apostle (May

Allah shower His blessings and peace on him) that I had sighted Hilal, he ordered the people to fast.

[Sunan Abu Dawood:H.2342]

Abdullah bin Abbas (May Allah be pleased with them) reported that a villager came to the Apostle (May Allah shower His blessings and peace on him) and told him that he had sighted Hilal of Ramadhan. He (May Allah shower His blessings and peace on him) said, “Do you testify that there is no God but Allah?” He replied, “Yes.” Then he said to him, “ Do you testify that Muhammad is the Messenger of Allah?” He replied, “Yes.” Then he (May Allah shower His blessings and peace on him) said to Bilal (May Allah be pleased with him), “Pronounce to the people that they should fast tomorrow.”

[Sunan Abu Dawood:H.2340]

(c) If 30th night of Sha’ban is cloudy, it is obligatory to count the next day first day of Ramadhan being cautious and fast on the day with intension of Ramadhan.

Abdullah bin Umar (May Allah be pleased with them) reported that the Messenger of Allah  (May Allah shower His blessings and peace on him) said, “Indeed the (lunar) month comprises 29 full days, don’t fast until you observe Hilal and don’t stop fasting until you observe it again. If the sky is cloudy (on 29th Sha’ban) then restrict to that number (i.e 29).” Nafea said,   “It was the practice of Abdullah bin Umar, when 29 days of Sha’ban had passed, he sent some body to observe Hilal, if the Hilal was not observed while there were no clouds or dust on the horizon, he did not fast next day, if the horizon was cloudy or dusty he fasted on the next day.”

[Musnad Imam Ahmad:H.4488, Sahih Bukhari:H.1907, Sahih Muslim:H.1080,  Sunan Ibni Majah:H.1654, Sahih Ibni Hibban:H.3449, Sahih Ibni Khuzaimah:H.1913, 1918] Ayeshah Siddiqah (May Allah be pleased with her) said, “I fasted with the Messenger of Allah (May Allah shower His blessings and peace on him) often 29 days, rather 30 days.”

[Musnad Imam Ahmad:H.25023, 25104]

Abdullah bin Masood (May Allah be pleased with him) said, “I fasted with the Messenger of Allah (May Allah shower His blessings and peace on him) often 29 days, rather 30 days.”

[Musnad Imam Ahmad:H.3775, 3840, 3871, 4208, 4300]

It proves that originally, the lunar month comprises 29 full days, however, the fraction accumulates and fewer makes 30 days. So when sky is not clear, the prevailing figure 29 must be applied and should fast on the coming day.

(d) Keep fasting the Ramadhan, untill completion of thirty days or on 29th day two Muslims good at character testify that they have sighted Hilal after sunset in the western horizon.

Abu Hurairah (May Allah be pleased with him) reported that the Messenger of Allah (May Allah shower His blessings and peace on him) said, “Begin fasting when you observe Hilal and stop fasting when you observe it (again). If the sky is cloudy, then fast for thirty days.”

[Musnad Imam Ahmad:H. 7507, Jamea At-Tirmidhi:H.684, Sahih Ibni Khuzaimah:H. 1908, Sahih Ibni Hibban:H.3443]

(e) If Hilal of Shawal is observed during day time, it is considered for the coming night and fast would not be broken but after sunset.

Abu Wayel (May Allah be pleased with him) said that when we were at Khaniqeen (a town) Umar bin Khattab’s (May Allah be pleased with him) letter came to us (with inscription), “Verily! Certain crescents are bigger than the other, so when you observe crescent during day time, don’t break the fast before sunset; except two Muslim men testify that they observed it in the previous evening.”

[Sunan-ul-Kubra Al-Bayhaqi:H.7771-7773]

Abdullah bin Umar, Usman bin Affan and Abdullah bin Masood (May Allah be pleased with them) passed the same ruling as did Umar (May Allah be pleased with him).

[Sunan-ul-Kubra Al-Bayhaqi:H.7775-7777]

(e) It is forbidden to fast on the 29th and 30th  day of Sha’ban exclusively, when sky is clear in the 29th and 3oth evening of Sha’ban respectively. However, if one has been fasting since the beginning of Ramadhan, he is permitted to fast on these days too.

Abu Hurairah (May Allah be pleased with him) reported that the Messenger of Allah (May Allah shower His blessings and peace on him) said, “Don’t fast one or two days before onset of Ramadhan, except one fasts these days in his routine.”

[Musnad Imam Ahmad:H.7199, 7766, 8558, 9276, 9652, 10187, 10455, 10672,  10765, Sahih Bukhari:H.1914, Sahih Muslim:H.1082,  Sunan Ibni Majah:H.1654, Sahih Ibni Hibban:H.3586, Sahih Ibni Khuzaimah:H.1913, 1918]

(B) CONDITIONS FOR OBLIGATION:

There are four conditions for obligation of fasting:

  1. 1.     Islam: Fasting the month of Ramadhan is obligation only to the Muslims.

Allah Almighty says:

“O you who have believed, decreed upon you is fasting as it was decreed upon those before you that you may become righteous.”[2:183]

  1. 2.     Puberty: This obligation is only to the Muslims who have reached their puberty. The major sign of puberty in boys is first ejaculation, while first menstrual period is sign of puberty in girls.

Ali bin Abu Talib (May Allah be pleased with him) reported that the Messenger of Allah (May Allah shower His blessings and peace on him) said, “The pen (of commandment) has been taken away from three persons, i.e the child until he reaches the age of puberty, the sleeping person until he awakes and the mentally retorted until he recovers.”

[Musnad Imam Ahmad:H. 940,956,1183, Jami At-Tirmidhi:H.1423]

  1. 3.     Sanity: It is obligation to the Muslims who have SANITY of any level, while mad/mentally retorted people are not obliged.

See the argument in condition No.2

  1. 4.     Power: It is obliged for those Muslims who have power enough to bear the hardships of fasting. While those who can’t bear the hardships have not been obliged to fast.

Allah Almighty says:

“So whoever among you is ill or on a journey [during them] – then an equal number of days [are to be made up]. And upon those who are able [to fast, but with hardship] – a ransom [as substitute] of feeding a poor person [each day]. And whoever volunteers excess – it is better for him. But to fast is best for you, if you only knew.” [2:184]

The people who can’t bear the hardships of fasting and have a legal/valid excuse to be exempted from the commandment are as follows:

(a)  Old men and women:

The old men/women , who are unable to fast in Ramadhan, are obliged to feed a needy for each day of Ramadhan. The minimum quantity of food obliged is one Mudd (two handful or 788 grams approximately) of wheat or half Sa’a (1294 grams approximately) of other cereals and dates etc.

Ata bin Abu Rabah (Be His mercy on him) reported that I heard Abdullah bin Abbas (May Allah be pleased with them) reciting the verse “And upon those who are able [to fast, but with hardship] – a ransom [as substitute] of feeding a poor person [each day].” [2:184] and said, “ It has not been cancelled, but it is a (concession) for an old man and woman who are unable to fast, so they should feed a needy every day.”

[Sahih Bukhari:4505]

Muadh bin Jabal (May Allah be pleased with him) said, “Then Allah Almighty revealed the verse, “It is the month of Ramadhan in which the

Qur’an was revealed, a guidance for mankind with clear teachings showing the Right Way and a criterion of truth and falsehood. Therefore, anyone of you who witnesses that month should fast therein.” [2:185] So Allah Almighty obliged fasting Ramadhan to the healthy resident and granted concession to the patient and traveler, while the old man, who is unable to fast is obliged to feed the needy.”

[Musnad Imam Ahmad:H. 22475]

Anas bin Malik (May Allah be pleased with him), in last two years of his life, did not fast in Ramadhan for being so old, rather fed a needy every day.

[Ibni Hajr Al-Asqalani, Fat-hul-Bari:vol.8,pp.227, Qadimi Kutub Khana, Karachi]

(b) Patients: Patients are of two types:

(i)                Hopeless patients who are analogous to old men, have the same ruling as old men and women.

(ii)              The patients who hope to recover, can enjoy the concession, but are obliged to Make up Qadha (compensation) after Ramadhan.

The arguments have been mentioned above.

(c)       Pregnant women/ The mother who feeds her baby her own milk:

Abdullah bin Abbas (May Allah be pleased with them) said about the verse [2:184] “It is for the pregnant and the mother who feeds her baby her own milk.”

[Sunan Abu Dawood:H.2317]

The pregnant and the mother who feeds her baby her own milk when feel threat to their own life, they have concession not to fast and obliged only to make Qadha (compensation) after Ramadhan. However, if the life of their baby is threatened, then they can enjoy the concession too, but are obliged to feed a needy against each day of Ramadhan, in addition to Qadha (compensation).

It is the ruling of Abdullah bin Abbas and Abdullah bin Umar (May Allah be pleased with them), while no Sahabi contradicted them.

(d) The Traveler:

The traveler has the concession not to fast in Ramadhan and making up Qadha (compensation) after the month. It is recommended for the traveler that he should not fast when he is on journey of a distance nearly 48 miles. However if a person with enough power, travels for that distance or lesser/ more and fasts, then his saom (fasting) is valid.

Jabir bin Abdullah  (May Allah be pleased with him) reported that the Messenger of Allah (May Allah shower His blessings and peace on him) was on a journey, he saw there a crowd alongside a man, who was shaded up. He  (May Allah shower His blessings and peace on him) said, “ What is going on?” They replied that the man was observing fast. Then he  (May Allah shower His blessings and peace on him) said,  “Fasting during journey is not a virtuous deed.”

[Musnad Imam Ahmad:H.14242, 14463, 14479, 15356, Sahih Bukhari:H.1946, Sahih Muslim:H.1115,  Sunan Abu Dawood:H.2407, Sahih Ibni Hibban:H.3552, Sahih Ibni Khuzaimah:H.2017]

It is mentioned in one narration of Jabir (May Allah be pleased with him) that the Prophet (May Allah shower His blessings and peace on him) called the man and commanded him to break the fast.

[Musnad Imam Ahmad:H.14562]

Abdullah bin Abbas (May Allah be pleased with them) reported that when half of the 8th year passed after Hijrah to Madinah,the Messenger of Allah (May Allah shower His blessings and peace on him) left Madinah, with ten thousands companions, while he kept fast alongwith the Muslims with him.When they reached Kadeed, the place between Usfan and Qudaid, he broke the fast (before time) and the others did so. The last practice/command of the Prophet (May Allah shower His blessings and peace on him) is considered Sunnah.

[Musnad Imam Ahmad:H.1892, 2392, 2884, 3089, 3258, 3460, Sahih Bukhari:H.1944, Sahih Muslim:H.1113, Sahih Ibni Hibban:H.3555, Sahih Ibni Khuzaimah:H.2035]

Abdullah bin Abbas (May Allah be pleased with them) reported that the Messenger of Allah (May Allah shower His blessings and peace on him) left (Madinah) in Ramadhan of the year of Fath-ul-Makkah. He fasted for Ramadhan and the Muslims did too with him. When they reached Kadeed, he called for a wooden bowl of water and drank it, while he was riding  his beast and people were looking at him. This was to tell the people that he had broken the fast. So the Muslims broke the fast too.

[Musnad Imam Ahmad:H.2363]

Hamzah bin Amr Al-Aslami (May Allah be pleased with him) reported that he said,  “O’  Messenger of Allah (May Allah shower His blessings and peace on him) I have power to fast in the journey, is there any harm to me?” He (May Allah shower His blessings and peace on him) said, “It is a concession from Allah the Exalted, so if one  enjoys this concession, that is well, if some one likes to fast, there is no harm to him.”

[Sahih Muslim:H.1117]

Abu To’amah (Be His mercy on him) reported that he was beside Abdullah bin Umar (May Allah be pleased with them) when a man came to him and said, “O’ Abu Abdur Rahman! I have power to fast in the journey.” Abdullah bin Umar  (May Allah be pleased with them) said, “I herad the Messenger of Allah (May Allah shower His blessings and peace on him) saying , “One who does not accept the concession granted by Allah, there is a sin on him equal to the Mount  Arafat.”

[Musnad Imam Ahmad:H.5392]

The last Hadith is about a person who fasts in journey, despite lacking its power.

(C) CONDITIONS FOR VALIDITY OF SAOM:

There are six conditions for validity of fasting:

(1) Islam:

Only Muslims are obliged to fast, non-Muslims are not obliged, if they fast it is invalid.

For argument see [3.2:(B):1]

(2) Sanity:

SANITY is required for intention, mentally retorted and unconscious have no intention, so their fast is invalid.

For argument see [3.2:(B):2]

(3) Minor with power:

The mature child, who has power to fast, should be insisted to fast to make habit. So his / her Saom (fast) is valid.

Rubay bint Muawadh (May Allah be pleased with her) reported that the Messenger of Allah (May Allah shower His blessings and peace on him) sent message to the villages of Ansar (Cooperatives) around Madinah in the morning of Ashoora (10th Muharram) that one who fsated early in the morning, he should complete his Saom (fast) and one who did not fast, he should abstain from eating and drinking rest of the day. Since then we have been fasting and our children too. We take them to Masjid and make toys of wool for them, whenever they weep for food, we give these toys to them till the time of breking fast.

[Sahih Bukhari:H.1960, Sahih Musli:H.1136]

(4) Completion of Menstrual Period:

For females, fasting is forbidden during their menstrual periods, so completion of menstrual period is another condition for validity of saom (fasting). Consensus of scholars has been established on this commandment.

Muadhah (Be His mercy on her) said, I asked Ayeshah (May Allah be pleased with her) , “What is the reason behind that the female undergoing menstrual cycle is obliged to make up Qadha for Saom (fast) and not for Salat (Salat)?” She said. “Are you Hurooriyah(Kharijite)? We did undergo this phenomenon in the presence of the Messenger of Allah (May Allah shower His blessings and peace on him), then we were commanded to make up Saom and not to make up Salat.”

[Musnad Imam Ahmad:H.26477, Sahih Bukhari:H.321, Sahih Muslim:H.335, Sahih Ibni Hibban:H.1349, Sahih Ibni Khuzaimah:H.1001]

(5) Completion of Postpartum Period:

For females, fasting is forbidden during their postpartum period, so completion of postpartum period (40 days) is another condition for validity of fasting. Consensus of scholars has been established on this commandment.

Postpartum period is analogous to the menstrual period, regarding religious commandment about Saom and Salat.

(6) Intention before true dawn:

Intention for fasting the coming day is required before true dawn for the validity of Saom Maktoobah (Obligatory Fasting), whether fasting in Ramadhan or making it up (Qadha) after Ramadhan.

Hafsah bint Umar (May Allah be pleased with her) reported that the Messenger of Allah (May Allah shower His blessings and peace on him) said, “ One who does not determine the fasting till Fajr, his fasting is invalid.”

[Musnad Imam Ahmad:H.26989, Sunan Abu Dawood:H.2454, Jamea At-Tirmidhi: H.730, Sunan an-Nasayee:H.2341, Sunan Ibni Majah:H.1700, Muwatta Malik:H.637, Sunan Ad-Darimi:H.1698]

Intention for each saom individually is required, collective intention for the whole month does not suffice. Intention is not just an ambiguous or

doubtful idea, but it is clear determination. So it should exist in the night hours, before true dawn.

1.3  OBLIGATION OF SAOM (FASTING):

Refraining from the nullifiers of Saom, since true dawn to sunset is the obligation of Saom.

Allah Almighty says:
“And eat and drink until the white thread of dawn becomes distinct to you from the black thread [of night]. Then complete the fast until the sunset.” [2:187]

1.4: RECOMMENDATIONS IN SAOM (FASTING):

(A) SUHOOR (MEAL BEFORE DAWN):

Taking Suhoor (Meal before dawn) is Sunnah of the Prophet (May Allah shower His blessings and peace on him). Delaying Suhoor near to the true dawn is recommended.

Anas bin Malik (May Allah be pleased with him) reported that the Prophet (May Allah shower His blessings and peace on him) said, “ Take Suhoor, indeed Suhoor is  blessed (meal).”

[Sahih Bukhari:H.1923]

Abu Hurairah (May Allah be pleased with him) reported that the the Prophet (May Allah shower His blessings and peace on him) said, “ Take Suhoor, indeed Suhoor is  blessed (meal).”

[Musnad Imam Ahmad:H.8885, 10188]

Jabir (May Allah be pleased with him) reported that the the Prophet (May Allah shower His blessings and peace on him) said, “Whoever intends to fast, he should eat something as Suhoor (Meal before dawn).”

[Musnad Imam Ahmad:H.15013, 15117]

Abu Saeed Al-Khudri (May Allah be pleased with him) reported that the Prophet (May Allah shower His blessings and peace on him) said, “Taking Suhoor is a blessed action, don’t leave it, even if a draught of water; because Allah the Exalted and angels send blessings on the people who take Suhoor.”

[Musnad Imam Ahmad:H.15013, 15117]

Erbadh bin Sariyah (May Allah be pleased with him) reported that the Prophet (May Allah shower His blessings and peace on him) invited me to take Suhoor in Ramadhan and said, “Come to this blessed meal.”

[Musnad Imam Ahmad:H.17273, 17282, Sunan Abu Dawood:H.2344, Sahih Ibni Khuzaimah:H.1938]

Amr bin Al-Aas (May Allah be pleased with him) reported that the Prophet (May Allah shower His blessings and peace on him) said, “ The difference between our saom and the saom of the people of the scripture, is taking Suhoor.”

[Musnad Imam Ahmad:H.17914, 17923, 17954 Sahih Muslim:H.1096, Sahih Ibni Hibban:H.3477, Sahih Ibni Khuzaimah:H.1940]

Samurah bin Jundub (May Allah be pleased with him) reported that the Prophet (May Allah shower His blessings and peace on him) said, “Don’t stop taking Suhoor with Bilal’s Adhan, because Fajr (True Dawn) is not a vertical light, but it is the horizontal line (of light) along the horizon.”

[Musnad Imam Ahmad:H.20420]

Abu Zar (May Allah be pleased with him) reported that the Prophet (May Allah shower His blessings and peace on him) said, “My Ummah will remain well, until they haste to break the fast and delay Suhoor.”

[Musnad Imam Ahmad:H.21637]

(B) IFTAR (BREAKING THE FAST):

(a)       The time for breaking the fast begins with sunset. It is recommended to hasten in breaking the fast after sunset.

Sahl bin Sa’ad (May Allah be pleased with him) reported that the Prophet (May Allah shower His blessings and peace on him) said, “People will remain well, until they haste to break the fast.

[Musnad Imam Ahmad:H.23190, 23216, 23247, 23258, Sahih Bukhari:H.6934 Sahih Muslim:H.1098, Sunan Ibni Majah:H.1697, Sahih Ibni Hibban:H.2502, 2506, Sahih Ibni Khuzaimah: H.2059]

Abdullah bin Abu Aufa (May Allah be pleased with him) reported that we were traveling with the Prophet (May Allah shower His blessings and peace on him) in Ramdhan. When the sun set, He (May Allah shower His blessings and peace on him) said, “O’ man! Get down and prepare drink for us. He said, “O’ Messenger of Allah! It is still day.” He said again, “Get down and prepare drink.” Then he did so and offered him drink. He drank and said pointing towards the West, “When the sun sets there and the night appears there (East), then Sayem (one who fasts) should break his fast.”

[Musnad Imam Ahmad:H.19614, 19619, 19633,Sahih Bukhari:H.1955, Sahih Muslim:H.1101, Sahih Ibni Hibban:H.3511]

Abu Hurairah (May Allah be pleased with him) reported that the the Prophet (May Allah shower His blessings and peace on him) said, “Allah the Exalted says: The most I love from my slaves, are those people who hasten to break the fast.”

[Musnad Imam Ahmad:H.7240, Jamea At-Tirmidhi:H.700-701, Sahih Ibni Khuzaimah:H.2062]

(c)  Supplication (Dua) just before breaking the fast is recommended, because it is time for acceptance.

Abdullah bin Amr bin Al-Aas (May Allah be pleased with them) reported that the Prophet (May Allah shower His blessings and peace on him)

said, “ One who fasts, when supplicates at the time of breaking the fast, his supplication is not rejected.”

[Sunan Ibni Majah]

(c)       Reciting the following words to break the fast is Sunnah:

 اللَّهُمَّ لَك صُمْتُ وَعَلَى رِزْقِك أَفْطَرْتُ سُبْحَانَك وَبِحَمْدِك اللَّهُمَّ تَقَبَّلْ مِنِّي إنَّك أنت السَّمِيعُ الْعَلِيمُ

 “O’ Allah! I fasted for You and broke the fast by the subsistence You granted me, You are flawless, You are the Praise worthy. O’ Allah! Accept this (worship) from me, no doubt You are the Hearing and the Knowing.”

Mu’adh bin Zuhrah (Be His mercy on him) reported that when the Prophet (May Allah shower His blessings and peace on him) used to break the fast he recited, “O’ Allah! I fasted for You and broke the fast by the subsistence You granted me.”

[Sunan Abu Dawood:H.2358]

Abdullah bin Abbas (May Allah be pleased with them) reported that when the Prophet (May Allah shower His blessings and peace on him) used to break the fast he recited, “O’ Allah! I fasted for You and broke the fast by the subsistence You granted me, You are flawless, You are the Praise worthy. O’ Allah! Accept this (worship) from me, no doubt You are the Hearing and the Knowing.”

[Muajam At-Tabrani Al-Kabeer]

(d) Breaking the fast by fresh dates is recommended, if fresh dates are not available, then by dry dates, if dry dates are not available then by water.

Anas bin Malik (May Allah be pleased with them) reported that the Prophet (May Allah shower His blessings and peace on him) used to break the fast by dates before saying Salat, if dates were not available then by dry dates, if dry dates were not availabale then by droughts of water.

[Sunan Abu Dawood:H.2356]

(e)  It is recommended to recite the following words after breaking fast:

ذَهَبَ الظَّمَأُ وَابْتَلَّتْ الْعُرُوقُ وَثَبَتَ الْأَجْرُ إنْ شَاءَ اللَّهُ تَعَالَى

“Thirst has been vanquished, veins have become wet and the reward is ordained, by the grace of Allah Almighty.”

Abdullah bin Umar (May Allah be pleased with them) reported that when the Prophet (May Allah shower His blessings and peace on him) used to break the fast he recited, “Thirst has been vanquished, veins have become wet and the reward is ordained, by the grace of Allah Almighty.”

[Sunan Abu Dawood:H.2357]

(C)    VIRTUOUS DEEDS:

Virtuous deeds like Salat, reciting the Holy Qur’an and remembrance of Allah Almighty are recommended in Ramadhan, particularly during fast. One should try to do everything in accordance with Sunnah of the Prophet (May Allah shower His blessings and peace on him).

Abu Hurairah (May Allah be pleased with them) reported that  the Prophet (May Allah shower His blessings and peace on him)  said, “Allah (mighty and sublime be He) says: ‘The seed of Adam (Peace be on him) whatever virtuous deed practices, he is rewarded with ten to seven hundred times virtues except fasting. Fasting is Mine and it is I Who will give reward for it. [A man] gives up his sexual passion, his food and his drink for My sake. Fasting is like a shield, and he who fasts has two joys: a joy when he breaks his fast and a joy when he meets his Lord. The change in the breath of the mouth of him who fasts is better in Allah’s estimation than the smell of musk.”

[Musnad Imam Ahmad:H.7596, Sahih Bukhari:H.1894, 1904, 5927, 7492, 7538  Sahih Muslim: H.1151, Sahih Ibni Hibban:H.3422]

(D)    CHARITY:

Charity is highly recommended in Ramadhan as it multiplies the reward.

Abdullah bin Abbas (May Allah be pleased with them) reported that when the Prophet (May Allah shower His blessings and peace on him) was the most generous amongst the people, and he used to be more so in the month of Ramadhan when Gabriel visited him, and Gabriel used to meet him on every night of Ramadan till the end of the month. The Prophet (May Allah shower His blessings and peace on him) used to recite the Holy Qur’an to Gabriel, and when Gabriel met him, he used to be more generous than a fast wind.

[Musnad Imam Ahmad:H.2616, 3012, 3425, 3469, 3539, Sahih Bukhari:H.6, Sahih Muslim:H.2308, Sahih Ibni Hibban:H.3511]

1.5: NULLIFIERS OF SAOM (FASTING):

Following are the nullifiers of saom:

1.      Whatever reaches to stomach or brain or throat, like food, drink and drugs etc, nullifies saom (fasting).

(a)  If one applies eye-liner or drops eye-drops to his eyes and feels its taste in throat, it nullifies saom.

(b) If one uses ear-drops and feels its taste in throat, it nullifies saom.

(c)  If one uses inhaler and its vapours reach his brain or throat, it nullifies saom. However dust particles, fragrance or bad smell does not nullify saom.

(d) If one undergoes the process of enema, it nullifies saom.

(e)  Smoking, whether tobacco or sweet smoking, nullifies saom. However smoke produced by burning of the fuel does not nullify saom.

(f)   If one tastes food or chews gum/resin etc and he feels its taste in throat, it nullifies saom.

(g)  If one swallows phlegm that has approached to mouth, it nullifies saom.

(h)  If one swallows one’s own saliva that has reached to lips, or saliva of another person (like his spouse), it nullifies saom.

The reasons for aforementioned rulings are as follows:

Allah Almighty says:

“It has been made permissible for you the night preceding fasting to go to your wives [for sexual relations]. They are clothing for you and you are clothing for them.  Allah is aware that you would have deprived yourselves of this right, and so He has turned unto you in His mercy and removed this hardship from you. Now, then, you may lie with them skin to skin, and avail yourselves of that which Allah has ordained for you; And eat and drink until the white thread of dawn becomes distinct to you from the black thread [of night]. Then complete the fast until the sunset, but do not lie with them skin to skin when you are observing ITIKAF in Masajid (houses of worship). These are the bounds set by Allah: do not, then, approach them – [for] it is thus that Allah makes clear His verses unto mankind, so that they might remain conscious of Him.” [2:187]

Allah Almighty has not only forbidden to eat and drink whilst fasting, but also has commended to avoid the actions that lead to disobey this commandment, saying ,” These are the bounds set by Allah: do not, then, approach them.”

Abu Hurairah (May Allah be pleased with him) reported that the Messenger of Allah (May Allah shower His blessings and peace on him) said, “One who does not stop telling lies and practice with lies and ignorance, Allah does not require him to refrain from eating and drinking.”

[Musnad Imam Ahmad:H.9838, 10569, Sahih Bukhari:H.1903,Sahih Ibni Hibban:H.3480, Sahih Ibni Khuzaimah:H.1995]

Laqeet bin Sabrah (May Allah be pleased with him) reported that the Messenger of Allah (May Allah shower His blessings and peace on him) said, “ Perform Wudhu very well, wipe between the fingers and exaggerate in snuffing water, except while you are observing fast.”

[Musnad Imam Ahmad:H.18000, Sunan Abu Dawood:H.142-144, 2366, Jamea At-Tirmidhi: H.38, 788, Sunan Ibni Majah:H.407, 448]

2.      One who causes to vomit intentionally, this vomiting nullifies saom, however, if vomitting occurs unexpectedly, it does not nullify saom.

Abu Hurairah (May Allah be pleased with him) reported that the Messenger of Allah (May Allah shower His blessings and peace on him) said, “One who vomits abruptly(during saom), he is not enjoined to make up (Qadha), but one who vomits intentionally, he should make up.”

[Musnad Imam Ahmad:H.10468, Sunan Abu Dawood:H.2380,  Jamea At-Tirmidhi: H.720, Sunan Ibni Majah:H.1676, Sahih Ibni Hibban:H.3518, Sahih Ibni Khuzaimah:H.1960-1961]

Abu Darda (May Allah be pleased with him) reported that indeed, the Messenger of Allah (May Allah shower His blessings and peace on him) vomited (intentionally) so broke his saom (fast).

[Musnad Imam Ahmad:H.22044, 22740, 28050]

Thauban (May Allah be pleased with him) reported that he saw the Messenger of Allah (May Allah shower His blessings and peace on him) when he vomited (intentionally) and broke his saom (fast).

[Musnad Imam Ahmad:H.22730, 22807]

Fadhalah Al-Ansari (May Allah be pleased with him) reported that indeed, the Messenger of Allah (May Allah shower His blessings and peace on him) visited them on a day, when generally he used to fast, he sent for a utensil of water and drank it. We said, “O’ messenger of Allah! You did fast on this day?” He said, “Yes, but I vomited.”

[Musnad Imam Ahmad:H.22044, 22740, 28050, Sunan Ibni Majah:1675]

3.      One who undergoes Hijamah (cupping therapy) and the person who proceeds Hijamah (practitioner of cupping therapy), their action of Hijamah (cupping) nullifies saom of both persons.

Shaddad bin Aus (May Allah be pleased with him) reported that indeed, he with the Messenger of Allah (May Allah shower His blessings and peace on him) on 18th of Ramadhan, passed by a man in Al-Baqea, who was undergoing the process of Hijamah (cupping therapy), while he (May Allah shower His blessings and peace on him) was holding my hand, he said, “ The man who proceeded Hijamah and the man who  undergone Hijamah, broke their saom (fast).”

[Musnad Imam Ahmad:H.17241, 17254, 17256, Sunan Abu Dawood:H.2319]

Ma’aqil bin Sinan (May Allah be pleased with him) reported that indeed the Messenger of Allah (May Allah shower His blessings and peace on him) on 18th of Ramadhan, passed by him while he  was undergoing the process of Hijamah (cupping therapy), he (May Allah shower His blessings and peace on him)  said, “The man who proceeded Hijamah and the man who  undergone Hijamah, broke their saom (fast).”

[Musnad Imam Ahmad:H.15996, 16040]

Thauban (May Allah be pleased with him) reported that indeed the Messenger of Allah (May Allah shower His blessings and peace on him) passed by a man in Ramadhan who was undergoing Hijamah process, then he said, “The man who proceeded Hijamah and the man who  undergone Hijamah, broke their saom (fast).”

[Musnad Imam Ahmad:H.22741, 22774, 22796, 22814, Sunan Abu Dawood: H . 2367 , 2371, Sunan Ibni Majah:H.1680, Sahih Ibni Khuzaimah:H.1962-1963,1983]

Rafea bin Khadeej (May Allah be pleased with him) reported that indeed the Messenger of Allah (May Allah shower His blessings and peace on him) said, “The man who proceeded Hijamah and the man who  undergone Hijamah, broke their saom (fast).”

[Musnad Imam Ahmad:H.15922, Jamea At-Tirmidhi:H.774, Sahih Ibni Hibban:H.3535,Sahih Ibni Khuzaimah:H.1964,1965]

Abu Hurairah (May Allah be pleased with him) reported that indeed the

Messenger of Allah (May Allah shower His blessings and peace on him) said, “The man who proceeded Hijamah and the man who  undergone Hijamah, broke their saom (fast).”

[Musnad Imam Ahmad:H.8753, Sunan Ibni Majah:H.1679]

Ayeshah Siddiqah (May Allah be pleased with her) reported that indeed the Messenger of Allah (May Allah shower His blessings and peace on him) said, “The man who proceeded Hijamah and the man who  has undergone Hijamah, broke their saom (fast).”

[Musnad Imam Ahmad:H.27756, 29747]

This Mutawatir Hadith shows that proceeding Hijamah and undergoing the process of Hijamah nullifies saom.

4.      The onset of menstrual period nullifies saom.

Muadhah (Be His mercy on her) said, I asked Ayeshah (May Allah be pleased with her) , “What is the reason behind that the female undergoing menstrual cycle is obliged to make up (Qadha) for Saom (fast) and not for Salat (Salat)?” She said. “Are you Hurooriyah(Kharijite)? We did undergo this phenomenon in the presence of the Messenger of Allah (May Allah shower His blessings and peace on him), then we were commanded to make up Saom and not to make up Salat.”

[Musnad Imam Ahmad:H.26477, Sahih Bukhari:H.321, Sahih Muslim:H.335, Sahih Ibni Hibban:H.1349, Sahih Ibni Khuzaimah:H.1001]

5.      Post partum bleeding nullifies saom. Postpartum period is analogous to the menstrual period, regarding religious commandments about Saom and Salat.

6.      If one determines to break the fast, it nullifies saom (fsting), even if he/she does not break in reality. The reason for this ruling is that when one determines to come out of the worship, he/she invalidates his/her worship, because determination is one of the conditions for validity.

7.      If a couple does not copulate, but have sex with rest of the body and it results in ejaculation, then this ejaculation nullfies saom.

  1. If masturbation (jerking off, wanking, fingering etc) results in wetting, it nullifies saom.
  2. If a man gazes at a woman, kisses her or fondles her with his hands and it results in ejaculation, then this ejaculation nullifies saom.
  3.  If a man kisses a woman or touches her and he does not ejaculate but secretes pre-ejaculation fluid/Madhi, then this pre-ejaculation nullifies saom. If a man secretes pre-ejaculation fluid without kissing or touching a woman, it does not nullify saom.
  4.  If two or more women (lesbians) perform homosexual activity and one of them or all of them get wet, it nullifies her/their saom.
  5.  When a couple copulates in the day time, with saom, whether the copulation is vaginal or anal, with male or female, with elder or younger, whether semen springs out or not, whether they remember their saom or  forget about it, whether with consent or compulsion, the copulation nullifies saom of both members of the couple.

Allah Almighty says:

“It has been made permissible for you the night preceding fasting to go to your wives [for sexual relations]. They are clothing for you and you are clothing for them.”  [2:187]

This verse indicates that copulation in the day time, with saom, is forbidden. The Hadith explaining the issue will come under the heading Kaffarah (Ransom).

13.  If a person commits blasphemy by humiliating Allah Almighty or any prophet, or does polytheistic activities or utters words of disbelief, or perform any act of apostasy, it nullifies saom. When he would repent and turn to Islam again, he would be obliged to make up that saom.

  1. Death nullifies saom.

1.6: MAKING UP SAOM (QADHA):

(A)      If one breaks his/her fast, due to any of the nullifiers mentioned above, he/she is obliged to make it up after Ramadhan. He/she is obliged to fast only for one day against each day. For example if one breaks one fast, he/she is obliged to fast for only one day.

Allah Almighty says:

“The month of Ramadhan [is that] in which was revealed the Qur’an, a guidance for the people and clear proofs of guidance and criterion. So whoever sights [the new moon of] the month, let him fast it; and whoever is ill or on a journey – then an equal number of other days. Allah intends for you ease and does not intend for you hardship and [wants] for you to complete the period and to glorify Allah for that [to] which He has guided you; and perhaps you will be grateful.” [2:185]

(B)       If a couple copulate near true dawn, believing that the true dawn has not risen, but in reality it has, then they are obliged to make up and expiate for that saom. If same happens in evening when they believe that the sun has set, but in reality it has not, then they have the same ruling.

(C)       If one eats or drink or practice any other nullifier (except copulation), believing that the true dawn has not risen but in reality it has, or does the same in the evening, believing that the sun has set, but in reality it has not, then he/she is obliged to make up.

 

(D)      If a person converts to Islam, a female completes her menstrual/postpartum period, a patient recovers, a child reaches his/her puberty, a mad becomes normal or a traveler arrives at his residence in any part of a day (true dawn to sunset) of Ramadhan, they all are obliged to abstain from nullifiers of Saom (fasting) for the rest of the day and making up Qadha for the day after Ramadhan.

Rubay bint Muawadh (May Allah be pleased with her) reported that the Messenger of Allah (May Allah shower His blessings and peace on him) sent message to the villages of Ansar (Cooperatives) around Madinah in the morning of Ashoora (10th Muharram) that one who fsated early in the morning, he should complete his Saom (fast) and one who did not fast, he should abstain from eating and drinking rest of the day. Since then we have been fasting and our children too. We take them to Masjid and make toys of wool for them, whenever they weep for food, we give these toys to them till the time of breking fast.

[Sahih Bukhari:H.1960, Sahih Musli:H.1136]

(E)       If people did not fast believing the last day of Sha’aban, but it is proved through reliable sources in the day, that Hilal was sighted in the previous evening, then they are obliged to refrain from nullifiers of saom and make up for that missing saom.

(F)       If one delays making up (Qadha) without a legal reason (like disease or weakness) and fails to make up even the next Ramadhan begins, then he/she is obliged to feed a needy against each saom, in addition to Qadha after that Ramadhan.

Abdullah bin Abbas, Abdullah bin Umar and Abu Hurairah (May Allah be pleased with them) issued the same ruling, while no Companion contradicted this ruling.

(G) It is recommended to make up the missed Saom/Sayyam immedeately and continuously after Ramadhan, however making up continually is permissible too.

(H)      If one dies before making up saom, that was obligation on him/her, if he/she had enough time to make it up but failed to make up, then his/her hiers  should feed a needy agianst each saom missed. However, if he/she died in Ramadhan, and missed certain days to fast, then there is nothing on him/her because he/she had no time to make up.

Abdullah bin Abbas (May Allah be pleased with them) said, “If one got sick in Ramadhan, then died (after Ramadhan) and could not make up, feed from him.”

[Sunan Abu Dawwod:H.2401]

1.7: EXPIATION (KAFFARAH):

(A)      If a couple breaks their fast by copulation in day time in Ramadhan, as mentioned in nullifier No.12, then they are obliged to expiate in addition to making up. The man and woman are obliged to free a slave if they have, otherwise they are obliged to fast for two successive months continuously, if they can. If they can’t, then they are obliged to feed sixty needy people. When they copulate willingly, they are obliged to expiate independently.

(B)       If the woman is forced to copulate, then she is obliged just to make up, there is no expiation on her part, while the man is not assumed to be forced.

Abu Hurairah (May Allah be pleased with him) reported that while we were sitting with the Prophet (May Allah shower His blessings and peace on him) a man came and said, “O Allah’s Apostle! I have been ruined.” Allah’s Apostle (May Allah shower His blessings and peace on him) asked what was the matter with him. He replied “I had sexual intercourse with my wife while I was fasting in Ramadhan.” Allah’s Apostle (May Allah shower His blessings and peace on him) asked him, “Can you afford to manumit a slave?” He replied in the negative. Allah’s Apostle (May Allah shower His blessings and peace on him) asked him, “Can you fast for two successive months?” He replied in the negative. The Prophet (May Allah shower His blessings and peace on him) asked him, “Can you afford to feed sixty poor persons?” He replied in the negative. The Prophet (May Allah shower His blessings and peace on him) kept silent and while we were in that state, a big basket full of dates was brought to the Prophet . He asked, “Where is the questioner?” He replied, “I (am here).” The Prophet (May Allah shower His blessings and peace on him) said (to him), “Take this (basket of dates) and give it in charity.” The man said, “Should I give it to a person poorer than I? By Allah; there is no family between its (i.e. Medina’s) two mountains who are poorer than I.” The Prophet smiled till his pre-molar teeth became visible and then said, “Feed your family with it.”

[Musnad Imam Ahmad:H.7288, 6944, 7678, 7772, 10698, Sahih Bukhari:H.6709, Sahih Muslim:H.1111, Sahih Ibni Hibban:H.3524, Sahih Ibni Khuzaimah:H.1943-1945, 1949,1950]

The Holy Prophet (May Allah shower His blessings and peace on him) did not commanded the wife of the man mentioned in the Hadith to expiate, because she was forced by her husband to copulate.

(C)       If a couple/man/woman copulates two times or more in one day, they are obliged to make up and pay expiate for only once, provided that they have not expiated for first time. If they expiated for first time and

copulate again on the same day, after expiation, they are obliged to expiate again.

(D)      If a couple/man/woman copulates on two different days of Ramadhan, they are obliged to expiate for second time, if they have already expiated for the first day before second copulation.

(E)       There is no expiation for any nullifiers of saom, except the copulation.

(F)       The minimum quantity of food obliged for per capita is one Mudd (two handful or 788 grams approximately) of wheat or half Sa’a (1294 grams approximately) of other cereals/flour and dates etc. Feeding is recommended instead of paying the price of food. However paying the price to sixty needy people equally, is permissible. Feeding the prescribed quantity of food to each needy person should be ensured. Just feeding without any measurement is not permissible.

1.8: OFFENSIVES IN SAOM (MAKROOHAT):

(A)    EVIL PRACTICES:

Ramadhan  is the month of training the human behaviour. So all the evil practices should be strictly avoided in Ramadhan, so that it make your soul strong enough to fight against these evils after Ramadhan successfully as well. Evil practices in Ramadhan are extremely offensive.

Abu Hurairah (May Allah be pleased with him) reported that the Messenger of Allah (May Allah shower His blessings and peace on him) said, “One who does not stop telling lies and practice with lies and ignorance, Allah does not require him to refrain from eating and drinking.”

[Musnad Imam Ahmad:H.9838, 10569, Sahih Bukhari:H.1903,Sahih Ibni Hibban:H.3480, Sahih Ibni Khuzaimah:H.1995]

Abu Hurairah (May Allah be pleased with him) reported that the Messenger of Allah (May Allah shower His blessings and peace on him) said, “ When some body among you fast, he should avoid talking rubbish

and arguing with others that day. If  some body abuse him or fight with him, he should say ‘I am fasting. I am fasting.”

[Musnad Imam Ahmad:H.7679, Sahih Bukhari:H.1904, Sahih Muslim:H.1151, Sunan Abu Dwaood:H.2363]

Abu Hurairah (May Allah be pleased with him) reported that the Messenger of Allah (May Allah shower His blessings and peace on him) said, “ Sometimes a man who fasts, gets nothing but hunger and thirst.”

[Musnad Imam Ahmad:H.8843]

Ubaid (May Allah be pleased with him),Mawla of the Prophet, reported that two women fasted, while a man said to the  Prophet (May Allah shower His blessings and peace on him), “O’ Messenger of Allah! These two women fasted, but they are near to death for thirst.” He (PBUH) avoided him or kept silent. It was severe hot. The man repeated, “ O’ Allah’s Apostle! By God, they surely are dead or near to death. He (PBUH) said, “ Call them here.” So they came there. Then a pot was brought and he (PBUH) asked one of them to vomit. So she vomited pus, blood or rotted blood and flesh. Half of the pot filled with her vomit. Then he (PBUH) asked the other woman to vomit. So  she vomited pus, blood or rotted blood and flesh, even the pot was full. Then he (PBUH) said, “They fasted (avoided) the things what Allah has made lawful and they did what Allah has forbidden for them. One of them sat by the other and they began to eat the flesh of people (Committed back biting).”

[Musnad Imam Ahmad:H.24053, 24055, 24062]

(B)    KISSING AND FONDLING WITH A WOMAN:

Kissing a woman and fondling with her body, while fasting, is offensive because it may lead to secrete pre-ejaculation or even ejaculation, while both nullify saom.

Allah Almighty says:

These are the bounds set by Allah: do not, then, approach them – [for] it is thus that Allah makes clear His verses unto mankind, so that they might remain conscious of Him.” [2:187]

Abdullah bin Amr bin Al-Aas (May Allah be pleased with them) reported that while we were sitting by the Prophet (May Allah shower His blessings and peace on him), a young man came to the Prophet (May Allah shower His blessings and peace on him) and said, “O’ Messenger of Allah! Is kissing permissible for me while I am fasting?” He (PBUH)replied in negative. Then an old man came and said, “O’ Messenger of Allah! Is kissing permissible for me while I am fasting?” He (PBUH) said, “Yes.” (The narrator said) We look at each other, then the Messenger of Allah (May Allah shower His blessings and peace on him) said, “ I know why you are looking at each other, verily that old man has self control.”

[Musnad Imam Ahmad:H.6739, 7054]

Ayeshah (May Allah be pleased with her) said, “The Messenger of Allah (May Allah shower His blessings and peace on him) used to kiss while he was fasting. But who among you have control on his desire as the Messenger of Allah (PBUH) had control on his desire?”

[Musnad Imam Ahmad:H.25175, Sunan Ibni Majah:H.1684]

Abdullah bin Sa’alabah (May Allah be pleased with him) reported that the Prophet’s companions (May Allah be pleased with them) used to forbid me kissing, whether I may go beyond kissing, then the people of the day (Tabiyeen) forbid this and say, “Verily, the Messenger of Allah (PBUH) was protected by Allah Almighty, while nobody has this protection save him.”

[Musnad Imam Ahmad:H.24069]

A great majority of Sahabah and Tabiyeen considered kissing whilst fasting, as an offensive. They believed that Prophet’s (May Allah shower His blessings and peace on him) kissing was exclusive for him because he had the strongest control on his desire, while others do not.

 

(C)    EXAGGERATION IN RINSING MOUTH AND SNUFFING WATER:

Exaggeration in rinsing mouth and snuffing water during Wudhu is offensive.

Laqeet bin Sabrah (May Allah be pleased with him) reported that the Messenger of Allah (May Allah shower His blessings and peace on him) said, “ Perform Wudhu very well, wipe between the fingers and exaggerate in snuffing water, except while you are observing fast.”

[Musnad Imam Ahmad:H.18000, Sunan Abu Dawood:H.142-144, 2366, Jamea At-Tirmidhi: H.38, 788, Sunan Ibni Majah:H.407, 448]

(D)    SAOM WISAL (UNINTERRUPTED FASTING):

Saom Wisal (uninterrupted fasting) is offensive by the Prophet (May Allah shower His blessings and peace on him).

Abu Hurairah (May Allah be pleased with him) reported Allah’s Messenger (May Allah shower His blessings and peace on him) forbade to observe Saom Wisal (fasting uninterrupted). They (his Companions) said, “O’ Messenger of Allah! you observe Saom Wisal.” Upon this he (PBUH) said, “You are not like me in this matter, for I spend my night (in a state) that my Lord feeds me and provides me drink.”

[Musnad Imam Ahmad:H.7539, 7773, 10705, Sahih Bukhari:H.1965, Sahih Muslim:H.1103]

Abdullah bin Umar (May Allah be pleased with them) reported Allah’s Messenger (May Allah shower His blessings and peace on him) fasted uninterrupted in Ramadhan and the people fsted uninterrupted as well. They said, “You forbid us to fast uninterrupted, but you do so.” He (PBUH) said, “I am not like one of you. I am fed and provided with drink.”

[Musnad Imam Ahmad:H.4721, 4752, 5795, 5917, 6125, 6299, 6413, Sahih Bukhari:H.1922, Sahih Muslim:H.1102]

 

 

(F)     COLLECTING SALIVA & SWALLOWING:

Collecting saliva in oral cavity and swallowing  is offensive, though it does not nullify saom.

(G)    SWALLOWING THE FOOD PARTICLES:

Swallowing the food particles left in mouth after True Dawn, is offensive.

(H)    SMELLING A PERFUME:

Smelling a perfume, that can enter the throat, is offensive like musk and Kafoor (camphor).

(I)      TASTING FOOD:

Tasting food or anything without necessity is offensive, because there is fear of reaching taste into throat, that nullifies saom.

1.9: CONCESSIONS:

(A)   MISTAKE, FORGETFULNESS AND COMPULSION:

One who practices any of nullifiers except copulation, by mistake, compulsion or forgetting saom, then his/her saom is valid, he/she is not required to make up. If dust particles of dirt, cotton, wool, flour, spices etc enter the throat unintentionally, it does not harm the saom. Same is the case for odour of filth and chemicals.

Abdullah bin Abbas (May Allah be pleased with them) reported that the Messenger of Allah (May Allah shower His blessings and peace on him) said, “Allah has pardoned for me my people for [their] mistakes and [their] forgetfulness and for what they have done under duress.”

[Sunan Ibni Majah:H.2043]

Abu Hurairah (May Allah be pleased with him) reported that the Messenger of Allah (May Allah shower His blessings and peace on him) said, “One who eats or drink forgetting his swom, he should complete his saom, because Allah fed him and made drink.”

[Musnad Imam Ahmad:H.9125, 9485, 10374, 10398, 10675, Sahih Bukhari:H.6669, Sahih Muslim:H.1155,Sunan Abu Dawood:H.2398, Sunan Ibni Majah:H.1673, Sahih Ibni Khuzaimah: H.1989]

(B)   FASTING IN THE STATE OF RITUAL IMPURITY:

If a couple copulates at night and can’t take bath till True Dawn but they determine saom of the day, their saom is valid. However they are obliged to take bath before sunrise to say Fajr Salat. Same is the case for a woman who completes her menstrual or postpartum period at night and a young man who ejaculates at night but can’t take bath till True Dawn.

Ayeshah (May Allah be pleased with her) reported that a person came to the Apostle of Allah (May Allah shower His blessings and peace on him) asking for a fatwa (religious verdict). She had been overhearing it from behind the curtain. She added that he (the person) had said: Messenger of Allah, (the time) of prayer overtakes me as I am in a state of junub(post sex pollution); should I observe fast (in this state)? Upon this the Messenger of Allah (PBUH) said: (At times the time) of prayer overtakes me while I am in a state of junub, and I observe fast (in that very state), whereupon he said, “O’ Messenger of Allah! you are not like us Allah has pardoned all your sins, the previous ones and the later ones. Upon this he (the Holy Prophet) said, “By Allah, I hope I am the most God-fearirg of you, and possess the best knowledge among you of those (things) against which I should guard.”

[Musnad Imam Ahmad:H.24889, 25742, 26211, Sahih Muslim:H.1110 , Sunan Abu Dawood: H.2389, Sahih Ibni Hibban:H.3492, 3495, 3501, Sahih Ibni Khuzaimah: H.2014]

(C)    SHOWER:

Having shower to cool the body is permissible in saom.

Abu Bakr bin Abdur Rahman (Be His mercy on him) reported that a companion of the Prophet (May Allah shower His blessings and peace on him) said, “I saw the Prophet (May Allah shower His blessings and peace on him) while he was pouring water on his head for severe thirst or heat.”

[Musnad Imam Ahmad:H.15998, 16719, 23577, 23578, 23611, 23861, 24049, Sunan Abu Dawood:H.2365]

(D)    NATURAL MISWAK (TOOTH STICK):

Using natural Miswak (Short and thin wooden stick used to clean the teeth) is permissible in swom, after making its tip soft, preferably dried, however, it is better to avoid it from zenith to sunset.

Amir bin Rabeah (May Allah be pleased with him) reported that I saw the Messenger of Allah (May Allah shower His blessings and peace on him) innumerable times, using Miswak, while he was fasting.

[Musnad Imam Ahmad:H.15766, 15776, Sunan Abu Dawood: H.3264, Jamea At-Tirmidhi: H.725, Sahih Ibni Khuzaimah: H.2007]

Ali bin Abu Talib and Khabbab bin Al-Art (May Allah be pleased with them) reported that the Messenger of Allah (May Allah shower His blessings and peace on him) said, “Use Miswak in the morning while you are fasting, but don’t use it in the evening.”

[Muajam-ut-Tabrani]

Abu Hurairah (May Allah be pleased with them) reported that the Messenger of Allah (May Allah shower His blessings and peace on him) said, “The change in the breath of the mouth of him who fasts is better in Allah’s estimation than the smell of musk.”

[Musnad Imam Ahmad:H.7596, Sahih Bukhari:H.1894, 1904, 5927, 7492, 7538  Sahih Muslim: H.1151, Sahih Ibni Hibban:H.3422]

The smell of breath changes after noon, while Miswak removes this smell. So it is recommended to avoid using Miswak when sun has passed the zenith.

(E)    SLEEPING:

If a person sleeps the whole day while he is fasting, his saom (fasting) is valid. However, he is obliged to make up the missed Salats when he awakes. One should avoid making it a habit.

Ali bin Abu Talib (May Allah be pleased with him) reported that the Messenger of Allah (May Allah shower His blessings and peace on him) said, “The pen (of commandment) has been taken away from three persons, i.e the child until he reaches the age of puberty, the sleeping person until he awakes and the mentally retorted until he recovers.”

[Musnad Imam Ahmad:H. 940, 956, 1183, Jamea At-Tirmidhi:H.1423]

1.10:       ITIKAF (SECLUISION):

(A)    DEFINITION:

Literally, ITIKAF means adherence to some thing/place. In Islamic terminology, it is residence in Masjid for a definite period with intention of isolation for the sake of Allah Almighty.

(B)    LEGAL STATUS:       

(a)       Eitikaf is Sunnah in any time of the year for any definite period, however it is Sunnah Mu’akkadah (Strongly Recommended) to observe ITIKAF in the last decade of Ramadhan.

Ayeshah (May Allah be pleased with her) reported that the Messenger of Allah (May Allah shower His blessings and peace on him) used to observe ITIKAF in the last ten days of Ramadan till Allah called him back (to his heavenly home). Then his wives continued to observe ITIKAF after him.

[Musnad Imam Ahmad:H.25120, 26479, 26912, Sahih Bukhari:H.2026, Sahih Muslim: H. 1171, Sahih Ibni Hibban:H.3665]

(b)       If a man vows to observe Eitikaf , it becomes obligatory for him.

Abdullah bin Umar (May Allah be pleased with them) reported that Umar bin Khattab (May Allah be pleased with him) said to the Prophet (May Allah shower His blessings and peace on him), “In the days of ignorance, I vowed to observe ITIKAF in Masjid-ul-Haram for the whole night.” He (PBUH) said, “Perform what you did vow.”

[Musnad Imam Ahmad:H.4577, 4705, 4922, 5539, Sahih Bukhari:H.2032, 2043, 3144, 4320, 6697, Sahih Muslim: H. 1659, Sahih Ibni Hibban:H.4380, Sahih Ibni Khuzaimah:H.2249]

Ayeshah (May Allah be pleased with her) reported that the Messenger of Allah (May Allah shower His blessings and peace on him) said, “One who vows to obey Allah, he should obey and one who vows to disobey Allah, he should not disobey.”

[Musnad Imam Ahmad:H.24576, 24642, 26257, 26402, 26403, Sahih Bukhari:H.6696, Sahih Ibni Hibban:H.4387-4388, Sahih Ibni Khuzaimah:H.2241]

(c) Saom (Fasting) is not necessarily required in ITIKAF besides Ramadhan, however it is preferred. If one vows to fast, in addition to ITIKAF, then fasting turns obligatory.

Abdullah bin Umar (May Allah be pleased with them) reported that Umar bin Khattab (May Allah be pleased with him) said to the Prophet (May Allah shower His blessings and peace on him), “In the days of ignorance, I vowed to observe ITIKAF in Masjid-ul-Haram for the whole night.” He (PBUH) said, “Perform what you did vow.”

[Musnad Imam Ahmad:H.4577, 4705, 4922, 5539, Sahih Bukhari:H.2032, 2043, 3144, 4320, 6697, Sahih Muslim: H. 1659, Sahih Ibni Hibban:H.4380, Sahih Ibni Khuzaimah:H.2249]

 (C)   CONDITIONS FOR VALIDITY OF ITIKAF:

There are six conditions for validity of ITIKAF for men and women, while one more is for women:

  1. ISLAM:

No virtuous deed is accepted, except with faith in Allah Almighty and His Last Messenger (May Allah shower His blessings and peace on him).

Actions of disbelievers are worthless in the estimation of Allah Almighty.

Allah Almighty says:

“And it was already revealed to you and to those before you that if you should associate [anything] with Allah , your action would surely become worthless, and you would surely be among the losers.” [39:65]

  1. PUBERTY: For arguments see conditions for obligation of saom [1.2:(B):2]
  2. SANITY: For arguments see conditions for obligation of saom [1.2:(B):2]
  3. MAJOR PURIFICATION:

Major Purification i.e bathing is required if one is polluted with major pollution. This is a condition for staying in Masjid that one should not be polluted with major pollution. Sanity

Allah Almighty says:

“And [mention] when We made the House a place of return for the people and [a place of] security. And take, [O believers], from the standing place of Abraham a place of prayer. And We charged Abraham and Ishmael, [saying], “Purify My House for those who perform Tawaf and those who are staying [there] for worship and those who bow and prostrate [in prayer].” [2:125]

“And [mention, O Muhammad], when We designated for Abraham the site of the House, [saying], “Do not associate anything with Me and purify My House for those who perform Tawaf and those who stand [in prayer] and those who bow and prostrate.” [22:26]

Ummi Salamah  (May Allah be pleased with her) reported that the Messenger of Allah (May Allah shower His blessings and peace on him) entered the courtyard of this Masjid and called out at the top of his voice, “The Masjid is not permissible for anyone who is sexually impure or any woman who is menstruating.”

[Sunan Ibni Majah:H.645]

  1. MASJID:

(a)  ITIKAF of a man and a woman is valid only a in a Masjid, with boundary walls and roof. Men are required to observe Eitikaf in a Masjid, where five Salats are recited in Jama’ah (congregation). However a Masjid Jamea (where Salat-ul-Jumuah  is recited) is preferred for men. Women can observe ITIKAF in any Masjid, whether without Jama’ah and Jumuah, because they are not obliged to offer Salat in Jama’ah and Salat-ul-Jumuah.

Allah Almighty says:

“But do not lie with them skin to skin when you are observing ITIKAF in Masajid (houses of worship). These are the bounds set by Allah: do not, then, approach them – [for] it is thus that Allah makes clear His verses unto mankind, so that they might remain conscious of Him.” [2:187]

Ayeshah (May Allah be pleased with her) reported that one of the wives of the Messenger of Allah (May Allah shower His blessings and peace on him) observed ITIKAF with him, while she was suffering from Istihadhah (unusual vaginal bleeding). She sometimes  observed paleness and sometimes redness, even we had to put a dish under her, while she offered Salat.

[Musnad Imam Ahmad:H.25512, Sahih Bukhari:H.310, 2037]

(b) If a person vows to observe ITIKAF, without specifying a particular Masjid, he can observe ITIKAF in any Masjid, where five Salats are recited in Jam’ah.

(c)  If a person vows to observe ITIKAF in Masjid-ul-Haram, he is obliged to fulfill his vow in this Masjid only.

(d) If a person vows to observe ITIKAF in Masjid Nabawi, his vow will be fulfilled if he observes ITIKAF in Masjid-ul-Haram or the Masjid he vowed. If a person vows to observe ITIKAF in Masjid Al-Aqsa (Jerusalem), he has option to observe ITIKAF in any of the three Masajid mentioned here.

Some companions of the Prophet (May Allah shower His blessings and peace on him) reported that on the day of Fath Makkah, a man came to the Prophet (May Allah shower His blessings and peace on him), whilst he was attending a meeting by Muqami Ibrahim, he greeted the Prophet (May Allah shower His blessings and peace on him) and said, “O’ Allah’s Apostle! I owed that when Allah will grant victory of Makkah, to the Prophet and the believers, I shall offer Salat in Baitul Maqdis (Jerusalem) and I have found a man from Al-Sham (Syria) here among the Quraish, who will accompany me while going and coming back.” The Messenger of Allah (May Allah shower His blessings and peace on him) said, “ Offer Salat here.” The man uttered his wording three times and every time the Messenger of Allah (May Allah shower His blessings and peace on him) replied, “ Offer Salat here.” (in Baitullah) Then the man repeated his words fourth times and the Prophet (May Allah shower His blessings and peace on him) said, “Go and offer Salat there, I swear Allah who sent Muhammad with the Truth, if you did offer Salat here, your vow to offer Salat in Baitul Maqdis, would be fulfilled.”

[Musnad Imam Ahmad:H.23556-23557, Sunan Abu Dawood:H.3306]

  1. INTENTION:

Intention is another condition for validity of ITIKAF.

Umar bin Khattab (May Allah be pleased with him) reported that the Messenger of Allah (May Allah shower His blessings and peace on him) said, “Actions are by intentions.”

[Musnad Imam Ahmad:H.168, 300, Sahih Bukhari:H.1, 54, Sahih Muslim: H. 1907, Sahih Ibni Hibban:H.388, Sahih Ibni Khuzaimah:H.142, 143, 455]

Seventh condition for a woman is to get permission of her husband, to observe ITIKAF. If he does not allow her, then she is not allowed to observe ITIKAF. If she observes ITIKAF voluntarily, without his permission, her observance is invalid, and if she has vowed for ITIKAF and she has entered her place of  ITIKAF without his husband’s permission, then she should complete it. Same is the case for slave-man and slave-woman, as they are obliged to seek permission of their master.

Ayeshah (May Allah be pleased with her) reported that Allah’s Apostle (May Allah shower His blessings and peace on him) used to observe ITIKAF every year in the month of Ramadhan. And after offering Salat-ul-Fajr, he used to enter the place of his ITIKAF. She asked his permission to let her observe ITIKAF and he allowed her, and so she pitched a tent in the Masjid. When Hafsah (May Allah be pleased with her) heard of that, she also pitched a tent (for herself), and when Zainab (May Allah be pleased with her) heard of that, she too pitched another tent. When, in the morning, Allah’s Apostle (PBUH) had finished the Salat-ul-Fajr, he saw four tents and asked, “What is this?” He was informed about it. He then said, “What made them do this? Is it righteousness? Remove the tents, for I do not want to see them.” So, the tents were removed. The Prophet (PBUH) did not observe ITIKAF that year in the month of Ramadhan, but did it in the last ten days of Shawwal.

[Sahih Bukhari:H.2041]

The Allah’s Apostle (May Allah shower His blessings and peace on him) was angry because Hafsah bint Umar and Zainab bint Jahash (May Allah be pleased with them) pitched the tents for ITIKAF without his permission. If he had allowed all of three wives, he would not be surprised to see so many tents. It made him so angry that he not only dismissed their ITIKAF, but posponed his own ITIKAF. One should not conclude that he (PBUH) disliked the ITIKAF of his wives in Masjid. If was so, he had not allowed Ayeshah (MAY Allah be pleased with her) to observe ITIKAF in Masjid.

(D)    OBLIGATION IN ITIKAF:

One who observes ITIKAF is obliged to stay within the boundary of Masjid all the time, except an inevitable necessity allows him to go out.

Ayeshah (May Allah be pleased with her) said, “It is Sunnah for the person who observes ITIKAF, that he should avoid to attend the patient (out of Masjid) and attend Funeral prayer, touch the woman and fondle with her; and going out (of Masjid) except for an inevitable necessity.”

[Sunan Abu Dawood:H.2473]

One can leave Masjid to relieve himself, urinate, perform ritual bath, perform obligatory Wudhu (ablution), vomit when captured by it, fetch food or water if he has no body to bring for him, offer Salat-ul-Jumuah, fulfill testimony that he has been specified for, attend a Funeral prayer that depends on him and save his life or property when it is severely threatened.

If a woman observes ITIKAF and in the mean while her husband passes away, she should leave Masjid and observe Eddah at her husband’s home.

(E)    RECOMMENDATIONS IN ITIKAF:

(a)       When one intends to observe ITIKAF voluntarily, in last decade of Ramadhan , it is recommended to  enter the place of ITIKAF (tent), before sunset on 20th day of Ramadhan. However if one enters after Salat-ul-Fajr of 21st Ramadhan, his ITIKAF is valid. If one vows to observe ITIKAF in last decade of Ramadhan, then he is obliged to enter before sunset on 20th day of Ramadhan.

Abu Sayeed al-Khudri (May Allah be pleased with him) reported that the Messenger of Allah (May Allah shower His blessings and peace on him) observed ITIKAF in the first ten days of Ramadhan and we did so; then Gabriel came and said, “What are you seeking, is in the coming nights.” He (PBUH) then observed ITIKAF in the middle ten (days) and we did so. Gabriel came again and said, “What are you seeking, is in the coming nights.” When morning of 20th day of Ramadhan appeared, he (PBUH) stood to deliver a lecture and said, “He who among you observed ITIKAF with the Messenger of Allah, he should return (to his place of ITIKAF). Lailat-ul-Qadr (The Glorious Night) was shown to me. It falls on the odd numbers in the last decade of Ramadhan, I have forgotten exact night. I saw (in the dream) that I was prostrating in clay and water.” That moment there we found no patch of cloud. But thereby, clouds came; the roof of Masjid was made of date-aypalm fronds. Rain descended on us and the Messenger of Allah (May Allah shower His blessings and peace on him) offered Salat with us, and I saw the traces of clay and water on

 the forehead of Allah’s Messenger (PBUH). This was shown to us for verification of his dream.

[Musnad Imam Ahmad:H.11601, 11727, 11917, Sahih Bukhari:H.2018, 2027,2036, Sahih Muslim:H. 1165-1169, Sahih Ibni Hibban:H.3673, 3674, 3677, 3684, 3685, Sahih Ibni Khuzaimah:H.2171, 2219, 2220, 2238, 2243]

In another narration Abu Sayeed al-Khudri (May Allah be pleased with him) reported that we observed ITIKAF with the Messenger of Allah (May Allah shower His blessings and peace on him) in the middele decade (of Ramadhan).It was the morning of 20th day (of Ramadhan) we began to shift our luggage. The Messenger of Allah (May Allah shower His blessings and peace on him) came and said, “One who observed ITIKAF (with me) he should return to his place of ITIKAF. I saw this (glorious) night and I saw that I was prostrating in water and clay.” When he returned to his place of ITIKAF, the sky became cloudy and rain descended on us. By Lord who sent him with Truth, the sky became cloudy in the last part of the day(20th ). The Msjid’s roof was made of date-palm frunds; so I saw the traces of water and clay on his nose and forehead.

[Sahih Bukhari:H.2040]

The collection of Abu Sayeed Al-Khudri’s Hadiths show that the Messenger of Allah (May Allah shower His blessings and peace on him) and his companions entered their tents before the sunset on 20th day of Ramadhan to acquire the virtue of Lailat-ul-Qadr in 21st night, that is the first night of last decade. That is why it is preferred to follow this practice.

Ayeshah (May Allah be pleased with her) reported that Allah’s Apostle (May Allah shower His blessings and peace on him) used to observe ITIKAF every year in the month of Ramadhan. And after offering Salat-ul-Fajr, he used to enter the place of his ITIKAF.

[Sahih Bukhari:H.2041]

(b)       It is recommended to isolate oneself in a tent. Tents should be pitched at a place within the boundary of Masjid, where Salat is not offered usually.

Ayeshah (May Allah be pleased with her) reported that Allah’s Apostle (May Allah shower His blessings and peace on him) used to observe ITIKAF in the last decade of Ramadhan. I used to pitch a tent for him and he entered it after offering Salat-ul-Fajr.

[Sahih Bukhari:H.2033]

(c) One who observes ITIKAF, he should keep him busy in virtuous activities like voluntary prayers, reciting the Quran, Zikr(remembrance) of Allah Almighty, salat alan Nabi (Supplication for the Prophet), reading Tafseer, Hadith, Seerah or Fiqh books  and meditation etc.

Ayeshah (May Allah be pleased with her) reported that when last decade of Ramadhan commenced, Allah’s Apostle (May Allah shower His blessings and peace on him) used to make his belt tight (to struggle hard), make his nights alive (watching in prayers) and make his family watch the night (in prayers).

[Sahih Bukhari:H.2024]

(d) One who observes ITIKAF, he should venerate the Masjid and observe all  Adab (etiquette).

(e)       One who observes ITIKAF, he should avoid all the worthless activities.

(f)        One who observes ITIKAF, he should avoid frequent conversation. However it does not require complete silence, every time. He can speak when it is necessary.

(g)       It is recommended to stay at Masjid on the Eind night and leave for home on the Eid Day after offering Salat-ul-Eid. Though, leaving for home after sunset of last day of Ramadhan is permissible.

(E)    NULLIFIERS OF ITIKAF:

(a)  Going out of Masjid without an inevitable necessity, as mentioned above, nullifies ITIKAF.

Ayeshah (May Allah be pleased with her) reported that Allah’s Apostle (May Allah shower His blessings and peace on him) moved his head towards me while he was observing ITIKAF in Masjid, so I combed his hair. He never entered the house, except for a human necessity.

[Musnad Imam Ahmad:H.25238, 26131, 26791, Sahih Bukhari:H.2029, Sahih Muslim:H. 297, Sahih Ibni Hibban:H.3669, 3672, Sahih Ibni Khuzaimah:H.2230, 2231]

Ayeshah (May Allah be pleased with her) reported that Allah’s Apostle (May Allah shower His blessings and peace on him) was observing ITIKAF in Masjid, he came to me even he rested his back on the door of my compartment, then I washed his head whilst I was in my compartment and his entire body was in Masjid.

[Musnad Imam Ahmad:H.25071]

It is notable that Ayeshah’s compartment was adjacent to Masjid an-Nabawi and its entrance was from the courtyard of Masjid. Same was the case of the compartments of other wives of the Prophet (May Allah shower His blessings and peace on him).

(b) Copulation nullifies ITIKAF, whether he performs at Masjid or at home, whether intentionally or mistakenly. If masturbation or fondling with a woman results in ejaculation, it also nullifies ITIKAF.

Allah Almighty says:

 “But do not lie with them skin to skin when you are observing ITIKAF in Masajid (houses of worship). These are the bounds set by Allah: do not, then, approach them – [for] it is thus that Allah makes clear His verses unto mankind, so that they might remain conscious of Him.” [2:187]

(c)  Drinking liquor nullifies ITIKAF.

(d) Apostasy nullifies ITIKAF.

(E)    MAKING UP ITIKAF AND EXPIATION:

(a)  If a person observes ITIKAF voluntarily and performs any of the nullifiers mentioned above, he is recommended to make up, though it is not an obligation. However he is not required to expiate.

Anas bin Malik (May Allah be pleased with him) reported that Allah’s Apostle (May Allah shower His blessings and peace on him) used to observe ITIKAF  in the last decade of Ramadhan, whilst he was residing at home. If he was on journey (in those days), he used to observe ITIKAF for twenty days, in the next year.

[Musnad Imam Ahmad:H.12040, Jamea At-Tirmidhi:H.803, Sahih Ibni Hibban:H.3662, 3664, Sahih Ibni Khuzaimah:H.2226-2227]

Ubaye bin Ka’ab (May Allah be pleased with him) reported that Allah’s Apostle (May Allah shower His blessings and peace on him) used to observe ITIKAF  in the last decade of Ramadhan, in a year he was on journey so could not observe ITIKAF (in last decade of Ramadhan), then he observed for twenty days in the next year.

[Musnad Imam Ahmad:H.21600, Sunan Abu Dawood:H.2463, Sunan Ibni Majah:H.1770, Sahih Ibni Hibban:H.3663, Sahih Ibni Khuzaimah:H.2225]

Ayeshah (May Allah be pleased with her) reported that Allah’s Apostle (May Allah shower His blessings and peace on him) used to observe ITIKAF every year in the month of Ramadhan. And after offering Salat-ul-Fajr, he used to enter the place of his ITIKAF. She asked his permission to let her observe ITIKAF and he allowed her, and so she pitched a tent in the Masjid. When Hafsah (May Allah be pleased with her) heard of that, she also pitched a tent (for herself), and when Zainab (May Allah be pleased with her) heard of that, she too pitched another tent. When, in the morning, Allah’s Apostle (PBUH) had finished the Salat-ul-Fajr, he saw four tents and asked, “What is this?” He was informed about it. He then said, “What made them do this? Is it righteousness? Remove the tents, for I do not want to see them.” So, the tents were removed. The Prophet (PBUH) did not observe ITIKAF

that year in the month of Ramadhan, but did it in the last ten days of Shawwal.

[Sahih Bukhari:H.2041]

The Hadith of Ayeshah (May Allah be pleased with her) proves that making up of voluntary ITIKAF is not obligatory, if it was obligatory, the Prophet (May Allah shower His blessings and peace on him) would have ordered his wives to make up, but he did not.

(b) When a woman observes ITIKAF to fulfill her vow and her menstrual or post partum period commences, she is obliged to leave Masjid and return to her ITIKAF after getting purified to make up the missed days. She is not required to expiate.

(c)  If a person observes ITIKAF to fulfill his vow and perform any of the nullifiers mentioned above without a valid excuse, his ITIKAF is void and he is obliged to make up ITIKAF for full days he vowed and offer Kaffarat-ul-Yameen (Oath Expiation).

(d) If a person observes ITIKAF to fulfill his vow and leaves it for a valid excuse like serious threat for his/her life or property, severe disease, testimony for that he is specified, and Eddah for passed away husband, then he/she is obliged to come back to his/her ITIKAF after resolving his/her excuse, however, there are three possibilities that require different rulings:

(1) If he/she vows to observe ITIKAF on different days without specifying them, then he/she is obliged to complete his/her days only. He/She is not required to make up or expiate. However he/she would not count the day when he/she left ITIKAF.

(2) If he/she vows to observe ITIKAF on specific days, like month of Ramadhan, then he/she is obliged to make up the missed days and offer Kaffarat-ul-Yameen (Oath Expiation).

(3)   If he/she vows to observe ITIKAF on unspecific but successive days like one month without naming it, then he/she has two options:

(i)    He/She can make up the missed days and offer Kaffarat-ul-Yameen (Oath Expiation).

(ii)He can observe ITIKAF for the total days he vowed, beginning from one, and now he is not required to offer Kaffarat-ul-Yameen (Oath Expiation).

Uqbah bin Aamir (May Allah be pleased with him) reported that Allah’s Apostle (May Allah shower His blessings and peace on him) said, “Expiation of vow is expiation of oath.”

[Musnad Imam Ahmad:H.17434, Sahih Muslim:H.1645]

1.11: KAFFARAT-UL-YAMEEN (OATH EXPIATION):

One, who is obliged to offer Kaffarat-ul-Yameen (Oath Expiation), has four options:

(1) Feed ten needy people

(2) Give clothes to ten needy people, in which they can say prayers

(3) Liberate a slave

(4) Fast on three successive days

Allah Almighty says:

“The expiation for it is the feeding of ten of the needy with the average of that wherewith you feed your own families or the clothing of them, or the liberation of a slave and for him who finds not (the resources to do so), then should fast for three days; this is the penance of your oaths when you have sworn.” [5:89]

1.12: LAILATUL QADR /THE GRAND NIGHT

The last decade is the most important decade of Ramadhan because the first revelation of the Holy Quran was sent to the Messenger Muhammad (Be His blessings and peace upon him) in the 5th night of this decade.

 

Wathilah bin Asqa’a (May Allah be pleased with him) reported that the Messenger of Allah (Be His blessings and peace upon him) said: “The Scriptures of Ibrahim (Abraham) were revealed to him in the first night of Ramdhan, the Torah was revealed in the seventh night of Ramadhan,  The Injil (The Gspels) was revealed in the 14th night of Ramadhan and The Quran was revealed in the 25th night of Rmadhan.”

[Musnad Imam Ahmad:H.17109]

The Holy Quran mentions the Grand Night in these beautiful words:

“Surely We revealed it (the Holy Quran) on the grand night. And what will make you comprehend what the grand night. The grand night is better than a thousand months. The angels and Gabriel descend in it by the permission of their Lord for every affair, Peace! It is till the break of the morning.”  [97: 1-5]

1.13: QIYAM-UL-LAIL/NIGHT PRAYERS

 

Observing the night in prayers is strongly recommended by the Messenger of Allah (Be His blessings and peace upon him).

Abu Hurairah (May Allah be pleased with him)   narrates that the Messenger of Allah  (May Allah shower His blessings and peace be on him) said: “Whoever watches night  in prayers, in Ramadhan, with good faith and  expectancy, his previous sins would be forgiven.”

[Musnad Imam Ahmad:H.10855, Sahih Bukhari:H.2012,Sahih Muslim:H.761]  

Abdur Rahman bin Auf (May Allah be pleased with him) narrates that the Messenger of Allah  (May Allah shower His blessings and peace be on him) said: “ Verily, Allah Azza wa Jall enjoined the fasting in Ramadhan and I make the watching its nights in prayers, a Sunnah, whoever fasts in Rmadhan and watches its nights in prayers, with good

faith and expectancy, he expels out of his sins, as the day when his mother begot him.”

[Musnad Imam Ahmad:H.1660,Sunan Ibni Majah:H.1328]  

Ayeshah Siddiqa (May Allah be pleased with her) says: "The Prophet (May Allah shower His blessings and peace be on him) came out one night and offered prayers  in Masjid and many people said prayers  with him. In the morning these people told others that the Prophet came out and said prayers in Masjid late at night. The next day he did the same and more people prayed with him. In the morning these people told others about that. Then more people gathered on the third night and he came out and offered prayers with people. On the fourth night  as many   people gathered that Masjid  was filled thoroughly and no space left for more people. The Prophet (May Allah shower His blessings and peace be on him) did not come out to them. Then he came out for Morning Prayers, when the prayer was over he stood among the people and  said to them: 'Surely I saw what you did at night, but nothing prevented me from coming out to you, save that I feared that [that prayer] would be made obligatory upon you.”
[Musnad Imam Ahmad:H.25876, Sahih Bukhari:H.2009,Sahih Muslim:H.760]  

Ayeshah Siddiqa (May Allah be pleased with her) says: " People used to say prayers in Masjid of Allah’s Messenger. The man who had memorized any part of the Quran, got round about five or six men and they said prayers collectively. In a night of Ramadhan the Prophet (May Allah shower His blessings and peace be on him) ordered her to install a barrier on her room entrance and she did so. Then the  Prophet (May Allah shower His blessings and peace be on him) came out  to them  after Esha prayers and he offered night prayers and the people present in Masjid at that time, prayed with him till late at night. Then he entered her room and left the barrier in its position. ……….”

[Musnad Imam Ahmad:H.26838]  

Anas bin Malik (May Allah be pleased with him) narrates that  the Prophet (May Allah shower His blessings and peace be on him) was offering night prayers in Ramadhan. I came and stood behind him. Afterwards a man came and stood beside me. Then another man came even we were a group.

[Musnad Imam Ahmad:H.13043, Sahih Muslim:H.1104]  

Abu Zar al-Ghifari (May Allah be pleased with him) narrates that we fasted in Ramadhan along with the Prophet (May Allah shower His blessings and peace be on him).He did not offered (night prayers) with us (i.e in congregation) till the seven nights of the month left. (On 23rd night) he offered night prayers with us even one third of night elapsed. He did not offered (night prayers) with us on 24th night. Then he offered prayers with us next night (25th) even half of the night elapsed. We said to him,” O’ Messenger of Allah! Why should you not offer prayers with us for rest of the night. “ He said,” When a man offers (night) prayers and returns, he is rewarded for rest of the night too.” He did not offered (night prayers) with us on 26th night. Then on 27th night , he offered with us night prayers, even he called his family members and people gathered too. He offered prayers with us even we were afraid that al-Falah may be missed. The narrator says, asked him(Abu Zar) what is al-Falah? He said,” as-Sahoor(Meal before true dawn).
[Musnad Imam Ahmad:H.21778,Sunan Abu Dawood:H.1375, Jamea al-Tirmidhi:H.806, Sunan Ibni Majah:H.1327, Sunan al-Nasaye:H.202, Sahih Ibni Khuzaimah:H.2206, Sahih Ibni Hibban:H.2547]   

Abu Zar al-Ghifari (May Allah be pleased with him)  narrates that the Prophet (May Allah shower His blessings and peace be on him) sat in Masjid for ITIKAF in the last decade of Ramadhan.On 22nd day of Ramadhan,  after offering  Asr Prayers he announced ,” We shall watch this night in prayers In sha Allah. Whoever wants to watch , he may watch.”  It was 23rd night, when he offered (Traweeh) in congregation,  after Esha prayers, even one third of night elapsed (in prayers), then he returned . On 24th night he did not offer Taraweeh prayers. On 24th day of Rmadhan, ,  after offering  Asr Prayers he announced ,” We shall watch this night in prayers In sha Allah. Whoever wants to watch , he may watch.”  It was 25th  night, when he offered (Traweeh) prayers with people, even one third of night elapsed (in prayers), then he returned. On 26h night he did not offer Taraweeh prayers. On 26th day of Ramadhan,  after offering  Asr Prayers he announced ,” We shall watch this night in prayers In sha Allah. Whoever wants to watch, he may watch.” We got prepared for prayers. Then we offered Taraweeh prayers ,even two third of night elapsed (in prayers), then he returned to his camp that was fixed in Masjid. I said to him, “ We love to say prayers with you till morning. He (May Allah shower His blessings and peace be on him) said,” O’ Abu

Zar! When you offer prayers behind your Imam (leader) and return, reward of offering prayers whole night is written for you.”

[Musnad Imam Ahmad:H.21842]  

May Allah help us to follow His injunctions and fulfill our covenant as Muslims.  Ameen.